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Vivo Energy (VVO)

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Wednesday 03 March, 2021

Vivo Energy

2020 Full Year Results

RNS Number : 9400Q
Vivo Energy PLC
03 March 2021
 

Vivo Energy plc

(LSE: VVO & JSE: VVO)

3 March 2021

 

  2020 Full Year Results

 

Vivo Energy plc, the leading pan-African retailer and distributor of Shell and Engen-branded fuels and lubricants, today announces its consolidated financial results for the twelve-months ended 31 December 2020.

 

Christian Chammas, CEO of Vivo Energy plc, commented :

"2020 was a year like no other, but we saw a strong recovery in H2 and continued to deliver against our strategy. Full year performance was driven by a strong rebound in the second half with H2 Adjusted EBITDA slightly ahead of H2 2019 at $220m, leading to full year Adjusted EBITDA of $360m, down 16% on 2019. The recovery would not have been possible without the actions we took to support our stakeholders which meant that as demand recovered, we were ready and able to supply our customers and keep the continent moving. The strong recovery has reinforced our confidence in the future, and the Board has recommended a final dividend of 3.8 cents, in line with our progressive dividend policy. Our markets have not been knocked off course by the pandemic, with a young and growing population driving economic development and future fuel demand. We are focused on capturing this growth and at the same time believe our cash flows support a higher level of shareholder returns and so have increased the minimum pay-out ratio from 30% to 50% of attributable net income. We have started 2021 well and are confident we can continue to successfully navigate future challenges and deliver long-term growth and returns for all of our stakeholders."

 

KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS 1  

($ in millions), if not otherwise indicated

 

Twelve-month

period ended

31 Dec 2020

Twelve-month

period ended

31 Dec 2019

Change

Volumes (million litres)

 

9,637

10,417

-7%

Revenues

 

6,918

8,302

-17%

Gross Profit

 

617

675

-9%

Gross Cash Unit Margin ($/'000 litres)

 

72

71

+1%

Gross Cash Profit

 

697

743

-6%

EBITDA

 

360

416

-13%

Adjusted EBITDA

 

360

431

-16%

Net Income

 

90

150

-40%

Attributable Net Income

 

80

136

-41%

Diluted EPS (US cents)

 

6

11

-45%

Adjusted Net Income

 

90

162

-44%

Adjusted Diluted EPS (US cents)

 

6

12

-50%

1 Refer to the non-GAAP financial measures definitions and reconciliations to the most comparable IFRS measures on pages 17 to 19.

 

Financial Highlights

· Sales volume fell by 7% due to the impact of COVID-19 on mobility in our markets

· Revenue was down 17%, reflecting the lower volumes sold and the lower crude oil price environment  

· Gross profit fell 9% to $617 million

· Gross cash unit margin rose to $72/'000 litres due to positive pricing and mix effects in H2

· Strong rebound in the second half drove H2 Adjusted EBITDA of $220 million, slightly ahead of H2 2019, leading to both full year Adjusted EBITDA and EBITDA of $360 million

· Net income was down 40% to $90 million, impacted by negative operating leverage due to lower volumes

· Diluted EPS of 6 cents and Basic headline EPS of 6 cents, were both 45% below 2019

· Recommended final dividend of 3.8 cents per share, in line with the full year dividend proposed for 2019

 

Strategic and Operational Highlights

· Strong HSSEQ performance, with Total Recordable Case Frequency of 0.10 across the Group

· Adapted sites to keep employees, service station colleagues and customers safe and secure

· Expanded Retail network to 2,330 sites, by opening a net total of 104 new retail service stations

· Delivering against strategy in Engen markets, by expanding Retail network by 14% during the year

· Protected jobs of our employees and supported our dealers and hauliers

· Supported our communities through investment into over 130 community projects

· Agreed our first project to supply hybrid solar power to a gold mining customer in West Africa

 

Outlook  

The Group experienced a swift recovery in H2 2020, delivering strong financial performance and has growing confidence for the future, with the positive H2 2020 trends expected to continue into 2021. We navigated the first twelve months of the pandemic successfully, strengthening our market position in our key markets and continuing to invest in growing our network and offerings. Assuming the level of restrictions in our operating countries do not materially change, we anticipate that the progressive recovery in the Retail segment, driven by increasing mobility, will support business performance, with Aviation and Marine remaining subdued. We continue to invest in growing the business, with capital expenditure expected to be in line with 2020 levels, at around $160 million as we invest in growing and upgrading the retail network and our offerings across all 23 countries, with 90-110 net new sites targeted for the year.

We have leading market positions in structural growth markets across Africa, which are expected to see a rapid recovery in economic growth in 2021 and beyond, driven by the macro fundamentals on the continent. The pandemic slowed, but has not stopped this growth, and with a young and growing population, an emerging middle class and increasing car penetration, fuel demand in our markets will continue to grow in the coming years, underpinning our long term growth ambitions.

Throughout 2020 we maintained a strong balance sheet, and in Q3 completed a bond refinancing, which enhanced our capital structure and provides improved flexibility for capital allocation. Looking forward, we are focused on continuing to capture the growth opportunity that exists within our markets, and believe that at the same time, the level of cash flow generated within the Group and the balance sheet flexibility means that we are able to support a higher level of shareholder returns. We demonstrated our commitment to dividends by maintaining our progressive policy through the pandemic and believe that now is the right time to increase the minimum pay-out ratio from 30% to 50% of attributable net income, and intend for future dividends to grow in line with earnings.

 

 

End

 

Results presentation

Vivo Energy plc will host a webcast for analysts and investors today, 3 March 2021 at 09.00 GMT, which can be accessed at: https://webcasting.brrmedia.co.uk/broadcast/60228775a9190e2d3caa5759

 

For those wishing to ask a question, please dial in to the event by conference call:

 

Dial-in:  +44 (0)330 336 9125 / +27 11 844 6118 

Participant access code:   3813098

 

The replay of the webcast will be available after the event at https://investors.vivoenergy.com

 

Media contacts:

Vivo Energy plc

Rob Foyle, Head of Communications

+44 7715 036 407

[email protected]

 

Investor contact:

Vivo Energy plc

Giles Blackham, Head of Investor Relations

+44 20 3034 3735

[email protected]

 

Tulchan Communications LLP

Martin Robinson, Suniti Chauhan, Harry Cameron

+44 20 7353 4200

[email protected]

 

 

 

 

 

Notes to editors:

Vivo Energy operates and markets its products in countries across North, West, East and Southern Africa. The Group has a network of over 2,300 service stations in 23 countries operating under the Shell and Engen brands and exports lubricants to a number of other African countries. Its retail offering includes fuels, lubricants, card services, shops, restaurants and other non-fuel services. It provides fuels, lubricants and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to business customers across a range of sectors including marine, mining, construction, power, transport, wholesalers and manufacturing. The Company employs around 2,700 people and has access to over 1,000,000 cubic metres of fuel storage capacity and has a joint venture, Shell and Vivo Lubricants B.V., that sources, blends, packages and supplies Shell-branded lubricants.

Vivo Energy plc has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange, and is a member of the FTSE 250 index, with a secondary inward listing on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange.

For more information about Vivo Energy, please visit www.vivoenergy.com

 

Forward looking-statements

This report includes forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond the Company's control and all of which are based on the Directors' current beliefs and expectations about future events. Forward-looking statements are sometimes identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as "believe", "expects", "may", "will", "could", "should", "shall", "risk", "intends", "estimates", "aims", "plans", "predicts", "continues", "assumes", "positioned", "anticipates" or "targets" or the negative thereof, other variations thereon or comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include all matters that are not historical facts. They appear in a number of places throughout this report and include statements regarding the intentions, beliefs or current expectations of the Directors or the Group concerning, among other things, the future results of operations, financial condition, prospects, growth, strategies of the Group and the industry in which it operates. No assurance can be given that such future results will be achieved; actual events or results may differ materially as a result of risks and uncertainties facing the Group. Such risks and uncertainties could cause actual results to vary materially from the future results indicated, expressed, or implied in such forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements contained in this report speak only as of the date of this report. The Company and the Directors expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to update these forward-looking statements contained in the document to reflect any change in their expectations or any change in events, conditions, or circumstances on which such statements are based unless required to do so by applicable law.

CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER'S STATEMENT

If 2019 was a year of firsts for Vivo Energy, 2020 was a year like no other. In 40 years of working, across four continents and through many macroeconomic cycles, I have never experienced the conditions we saw during the year.

My overriding memory of the year, however, is one of pride and togetherness. It was remarkable how each and every one of our employees, contractors and partners stood up and made a difference in the fight against COVID-19.

Our position at the heart of our host economies means that we played a critical role in fuelling the continent's response to COVID-19, not only by keeping sites open and customers fuelled, but also by supporting our many stakeholders through a difficult time.

Impact of COVID-19 on our markets

We started the year full of optimism, with the integration of the Engen-branded markets effectively completed, and strong performance in our Shell-branded markets. It was only late in Q1 that we started to feel the impact from measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in our markets. However, recognising the risk posed by the spread of the virus, we had already taken the first of many actions to protect our people, preventing international travel from the end of January, and updating existing business continuity plans to reflect potential scenarios.

Few would have foreseen that at the pandemic's peak in April and May, nine of our 23 markets would follow Europe into complete lockdown of their economies, as a preventive measure against the spread of the virus. These markets represented 50% of our Group volumes the previous year, with some of these markets experiencing declines of up to 70% in monthly volumes during H1. All of our other host countries also implemented movement restrictions such as curfews as well as social distancing measures.

Vivo Energy's first priority has, and always will be, the health and safety of our people, our customers, and the communities where we operate. We acted quickly and decisively, implementing a range of preventive and protective health and safety measures including remote working and split shift patterns. We also took actions to protect our customers when they visit our sites.

The resilience that the African continent has shown during the COVID-19 pandemic has been nothing short of remarkable. At the outset of the pandemic, many experts rightly feared a human and economic catastrophe across the region, however, Africa is a young and vibrant continent, with a median age in our host countries of less than 25 years old. In facing a disease that disproportionately impacts the old, this demographic should provide real protection against major illness. It has been encouraging to see that healthcare systems have not been overrun, and the majority of our countries have tried to keep their economies open and their people in employment following the initial lockdowns.

I do not wish to underplay the impact of the pandemic on our markets, with lower tourism, investment and economic activity, and uncertainty remains as long as the virus persists, but these are markets that have not been knocked off course. The young and growing population is driving economic development and Vivo Energy is helping to fuel that growth. The IMF expects GDP in 2020 to have fallen by 3.1% on average across our operating countries (excluding Reunion), but following a strong 4.5% rebound forecast for 2021, expects average GDP growth of 5.2% between 2022 and 2025. This would be one of the highest growth rates in the world - and we expect that it, together with our focus on growing market share, will provide a strong base for future growth.

Decisive action to protect our business and enable recovery

While the scale of the changes to the operating environment were unprecedented, our reaction was testament to the wellestablished culture and operating model we have in Vivo Energy. Our decentralised model meant that we had the right people on the ground to react quickly to the changing conditions, managing working capital, credit and cash as well as working with our stakeholders to make sure we supported each other. The investment in our Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system meant that we had real time data with which to inform decision making, and this helped the Senior Executive Team to make the right decisions and guide our local teams.

As a result, we were able to limit the many impacts of the pandemic on our business, reducing supply and protecting our balance sheet through April and May. Fuel is, and will continue to be, the lifeblood of our economies, enabling economic activity and development. As the strictest mobility restrictions were lifted, demand returned rapidly at our retail sites in June and through the second half of the year. Only the Aviation and Marine businesses, which have represented less than 4% of the Group gross cash profit on average over the past three years, have remained subdued due to international travel restrictions.

The swift demand recovery and our nimble supply chain meant that we have been able to deliver strong performance through the second half of the year, which limited the reduction in full year gross cash profit to 6% against 2019. This fall is driven by volumes being down just 7% against 2019, despite a reduction of volumes during April and May of approximately 30%, the Aviation and Marine impact and restrictions continuing through the year in many markets. We also saw Group gross cash unit margin remain largely stable over the previous year at $72 per thousand litres, with H1 gross cash unit margin impacted by inventory impacts, and H2 seeing a reversal of this and benefiting from the mix effect as well as the supply and pricing environment.

This robust performance led to adjusted EBITDA of $360 million, down 16% against the previous year, and Basic earnings per share of 6 cents, 45% lower than 2019 as our normally beneficial operating leverage worked against us due to the lower volumes.

While the full year performance was lower than 2019, H2 2020 performance was in line with the previous year and demonstrates the resilience of our business despite the turbulence in the markets.

2020 was a challenging year on a number of levels, and I was delighted at how we responded. However, our share price has not recovered in line with performance and remains at disappointing levels. I believe that as we deliver against our growth plans, and show our commitment to shareholder returns, this will be recognised in time by the market and reflected in our valuation.

supporting Our stakeholders

With a vision to become the most respected energy business in Africa, we've always aimed to provide a positive impact for all of our stakeholders. I believe this is firmly demonstrated by our actions through the current pandemic and reflects the integration of sustainable business practices into our culture and operations.

We have supported and protected our stakeholders through the pandemic and worked closely with our dealer network and our transporters to protect the jobs of the front-line staff employed by them while volumes were low. We have also played our part in supporting the communities in which we operate by delivering over 130 community investment projects ranging from donations of food, fuel and protective equipment to the blending of hand sanitiser.

We have continued to carefully manage our impact on the environment, keep our people safe, healthy, well trained and supported, as well as having stringent oversight to mitigate some of the inherent risks in our markets around fraud, bribery and corruption.

One area that has rightly come to prominence during the past year is climate change, and we outline further in the report our commitment to playing our part in reducing the impact of carbon emissions and the long-term transition to low carbon energies. This fits firmly with our purpose to safely provide innovative and responsible energy solutions to Africa, which enable growth and development of the continent and its people. In our markets we expect there will be a significantly longer transition than in Europe, due to a lack of infrastructure, affordability and reliable access to electricity, meaning that demand for fuels are forecast to continue to grow rapidly over the medium term. We have a central part to play in making sure those fuels are as clean as possible, that we provide our customers with the offerings they need and that when commercial alternatives become a reality, we will be wellpositioned to capitalise on them.

Capital Structure

Maintaining a conservative balance sheet in order to provide maximum future flexibility is a core element of our strategy. Due to the nature of our operating model, each market self-funds its needs through both organic cash generation, as well as access to local facilities. These local facilities in aggregate amount to $1.6 billion, with each country's access to finance scaled according to its needs. The level of access to local facilities and our close management of working capital meant that the business was comfortably able to weather the storm at the height of the mobility restrictions.

At the Group level, we've explored for some time the opportunity to re-finance an amortising facility that was due to mature in 2022, in order to remove the need to repay circa $80 million of capital per annum. In September 2020, bond market conditions improved and we successfully priced a $350 million debt offering with a seven-year tenor at 5.125%. The offering was multiple times oversubscribed and increases the Group's flexibility for future capital allocation while significantly extending the debt maturities at attractive rates. The bond has an investment grade rating of Baa3 from Moody's and ratings of BB+ from Fitch and S&P reflecting the underlying strength of our business model and financial position.

Earlier in the year, as a result of the uncertainty created by the pandemic, the Group did not pay the final dividend in respect of 2019 in June 2020, as previously expected. This was a prudent decision taken by the Board at the height of the restrictions and impact on the business. The Board also opted not to pay an interim dividend in respect of H1 2020 at the halfyear results due to the short time period of recovery that had been underway. However, following the continued recovery in trading through the third quarter, the Board declared an interim dividend of $34 million, which is the amount that would have been paid to shareholders had the final dividend of the year ended 31 December 2019 been paid, rather than withdrawn.

Due to the positive performance continuing in Q4, the Board has recommended a final dividend of 3.8 cents per share ($48 million) in respect of 2020. This is in line with our stated progressive dividend policy and equal to the proposed 2019 full year dividend of 3.8 cents, despite the impacts of COVID-19 on the business during the year. If approved at our AGM, the final dividend will be paid to shareholders on 25 June 2021.

Looking Ahead

The Group experienced a swift recovery in H2 2020, delivering strong financial performance and has growing confidence for the future, with the positive H2 2020 trends expected to continue into 2021. We navigated the first twelve months of the pandemic successfully, strengthening our market position in our key markets and continuing to invest in growing our network and offerings. Assuming the level of restrictions in our operating countries do not materially change, we anticipate that the progressive recovery in the Retail segment, driven by increasing mobility, will support business performance, with Aviation and Marine remaining subdued. We continue to invest in growing the business, with capital expenditure expected to be in line with 2020 levels, at around $160 million as we invest in growing and upgrading the retail network and our offerings across all 23 countries, with 90-110 net new sites targeted for the year.

We have leading market positions in structural growth markets across Africa, which are expected to see a rapid recovery in economic growth in 2021 and beyond, driven by the macro fundamentals on the continent. The pandemic slowed, but has not stopped this growth, and with a young and growing population, an emerging middle class and increasing car penetration, fuel demand in our markets will continue to grow in the coming years, underpinning our long term growth ambitions.

Throughout 2020 we maintained a strong balance sheet, and in Q3 completed a bond refinancing, which enhanced our capital structure and provides improved flexibility for capital allocation. Looking forward, we are focused on continuing to capture the growth opportunity that exists within our markets, and believe that at the same time, the level of cash flow generated within the Group and the balance sheet flexibility means that we are able to support a higher level of shareholder returns. We demonstrated our commitment to dividends by maintaining our progressive policy through the pandemic and believe that now is the right time to increase the minimum pay-out ratio from 30% to 50% of attributable net income, and intend for future dividends to grow in line with earnings.

 

Christian Chammas

Chief Executive Officer

 

 

OPERATING REVIEW

OVERVIEW OF OPERATIONS BY SEGMENT

 

US$ million, unless otherwise indicated

2020

2019

Change

Volumes (million litres)

 

 

 

Retail

5,456

5,900

-8%

Commercial

4,045

4,380

-8%

Lubricants

136

137

-1%

Total

9,637

10,417

-7%

Gross profit

 

 

 

Retail (including Non-fuel retail)

387

411

-6%

Commercial

156

192

-19%

Lubricants

74

72

+3%

Total

617

675

-9%

Gross cash unit margin ($/'000 litres)

 

 

 

Retail (excluding Non-fuel retail)

76

71

+7%

Commercial

45

49

-8%

Lubricants

570

547

+4%

Total

72

71

+1%

Gross cash profit

 

 

 

Retail (including Non-fuel retail)

438

454

-4%

Commercial

181

214

-15%

Lubricants

78

75

+4%

Total

697

743

-6%

Adjusted EBITDA

 

 

 

Retail

216

242

-11%

Commercial

92

135

-32%

Lubricants

52

54

-4%

Total

360

431

-16%

 

RETAIL

US$ million, unless otherwise indicated

2020

2019

 

Change

Volumes (million litres)

5,456

5,900

 

-8%

Gross profit (including Non-fuel retail)

387

411

 

-6%

Gross cash unit margin (excluding Non-fuel retail) ($/'000 litres)

76

71

 

+7%

Retail fuel gross cash profit

412

421

 

-2%

Non-fuel retail gross cash profit

26

33

 

-21%

Adjusted EBITDA

216

242

 

-11%

overview

With a growing footprint across the African continent, Retail is at the heart of our business and has driven our business recovery during the second half of the year. Our modern, safe and clean sites provide our customers with access to high quality products, services and increased convenience wherever we operate.

2020 ReVIEW

Our Retail business segment delivered resilient results despite the impact of COVID-19 on our operating environment. The segment made a strong start to the year before COVID-19 related containment measures led to a significant decrease in demand. As mobility restrictions were gradually eased across our host countries, we registered strong improvements in volumes, gross cash profit and adjusted EBITDA in the second half of the year.

Retail fuel

Retail fuel volumes were 8% lower in 2020. Strong trading at the beginning of the year was more than offset by COVID-19 mobility restrictions imposed across our portfolio in late Q1, significantly impacting results in Q2, particularly in April and May. As measures were lifted, there was a strong rebound in demand, due to fuel being a consumer staple, which continued through H2. While we saw a rapid recovery in volumes, with some countries experiencing year-on-year growth in H2, mobility restrictions remained in place across many countries, suppressing demand.

To drive the recovery process, we implemented a range of initiatives to support our sites and attract customers by positioning our retail stations as the safest sites to refuel in the industry, offering auxiliary services and improving convenience. We completed the 'Shining Engen' programme in January 2020 and undertook a 'Shining Shell' programme through the rest of the year, providing enhancements to over 300 sites. We continued to grow our network, opening a net total of 104 sites, despite fluctuations in product demand, which supported volume growth in H2.

In line with our strategy to expand our position in Engen-branded markets, we acquired new sites in Zambia and Rwanda, increasing our networks by 21% and 35% respectively. In Tanzania, a large Engenbranded market, we have organically grown our network from seven sites in March 2019 to 20 sites in December 2020.

Gross cash unit margin was higher than the previous year at $76 per thousand litres. In H1, unit margins were impacted by the combined impact of the reduction in demand that increased inventory levels and the sharp fall in crude oil prices in March and April, which led to negative inventory effects on the stock on hand. Unit margins improved in H2 as a result of the supply and pricing environment in a number of our markets, together with strong margin performance in premium fuels.

Non-fuel retail

We continued to develop our Non-fuel retail segment, with a net total of 58 convenience retail shops and pharmacies and 20 food outlets added at our service stations. Our financial performance was impacted by COVID-19 restrictions, but remained robust, with gross cash profit of $26 million, down 21% in 2020. The mobility restrictions led to lower traffic at our sites, affected store opening hours and, in some cases led to store closures for periods during the year. We noted strong improvement in most markets in H2, however in certain markets, such as Morocco, ongoing restrictions on travel between regions have impacted sales at large motorway sites, which are traditionally large contributors.

Due to the pandemic, we saw an evolution in consumer behaviour. Our QSR takeaway and drive-through offerings became more vital and we adapted our offerings accordingly, including working with delivery partners in a number of our markets. In convenience retail, we have changed product lines to meet increased demand for personal health products, as well as trialling click and collect propositions.

We continued to expand our portfolio of joint ventures with QSR partners to enable the faster roll-out of new restaurants. We completed a joint venture in Namibia for the KFC brand, now the sixth country in which we have exclusive use of the KFC brand, and launched our first joint venture in Tunisia with Pomme de Pain.

COMMERCIAL

US$ million, unless otherwise indicated

2020

2019

Change

Volumes (million litres)

4,045

4,380

-8%

Gross profit

156

192

-19%

Gross cash unit margin ($/'000 litres)

45

49

-8%

Gross cash profit

181

214

-15%

Adjusted EBITDA

92

135

-32%

overview

We ensure reliable supply of high quality fuels and LPG products to a wide range of customers in the mining, construction, power, road transport, aviation and marine sectors. We provide those products with extensive and trusted services, to ensure we add value beyond the products we sell.

2020 Review

Our Commercial segment volumes were lower by 8% year-on-year, mainly due to the impact of weaker Aviation and Marine volumes arising from travel restrictions imposed as a result of COVID-19. However, volumeperformance in Core Commercial was strong. Gross cash unit margins of $45 per thousand litres was down 8% yearon-year primarily due to the negative inventory effects on the stock on hand in H1 2020. Gross cash profit of $181 million (2019: $214 million) was therefore 15% lower than the previous year.

Core commercial

Our Core Commercial business offers a range of services including the supply of bulk fuel to customers in the transportation, mining, construction and power sectors, as well as LPG to both consumers and industry. Core Commercial accounted for 85% (2019: 75%) of total Commercial volumes and 93% (2019: 82%) of overall Commercial gross cash profit. Volumes were 5% higher yearonyear mainly due to two months of additional contribution from the Engenbranded markets, aided by our tactical approach to the resellers market to take advantage of disrupted supply chains, as well as a robust performance in the LPG business due to the use of gas for home cooking. Furthermore, many of our key mining customers continued to operate as they were not significantly impacted by COVID-19. Volumes in H2 2020 compared to the prior period, were negatively impacted by the completion of a large circa 12-month supply contract in September, however underlying trends remained positive.

Gross cash unit margin was down 9% yearonyear due to negative inventory effects and lower margin sales to resellers, export customers and industrial users in the LPG business. This was partially offset by favourable supply margins in some markets. As a result, unit margins were $49 per thousand litres (2019: $54 per thousand litres) in Core Commercial.

Aviation and Marine

The contribution from Aviation and Marine fell significantly due to the impact of travel restrictions arising from COVID-19, accounting for just 15% of overall Commercial volumes (2019: 25%) and 7% of total Commercial gross cash profit (2019: 18%). These restrictions resulted in volumes being 46% lower than the previous year and unit margins falling to $21 per thousand litres (2019: $35 per thousand litres).

The Aviation business registered the largest drop in volumes, down 55% year-on-year as most airlines were restricted to cargo and repatriation flights across our markets at the peak of the pandemic. We experienced a small improvement in the second half of the year following the partial lifting of travel restrictions and the opening of borders in some countries, although we expect that Aviation volumes will remain subdued for some time. The Marine business also recorded lower volumes as a result of lower cargo and cruise line movements in key markets. Partially offsetting this, we secured profitable Marine spot sales in some markets resulting in a 28% increase in the unit margin.

 

lubricants

US$ million, unless otherwise indicated

2020

2019

Change

Volumes (million litres)

136

137

-1%

Gross profit

74

72

+3%

Revenues

366

375

-2%

Gross cash unit margin ($/'000 litres)

570

547

+4%

Gross cash profit

78

75

+4%

Adjusted EBITDA

52

54

-4%

overview

We offer an extensive range of leading-edge lubricants to different sectors, backed by approval from a wide range of equipment manufacturers. We sell lubricants on the forecourt and through distributors while also providing essential value to many Commercial customers via a wide range of specialist products and services.

2020 review

The performance of our Lubricants segment remained solid despite the drop in demand arising from COVID-19, which significantly impacted the performance of our Retail business in key markets. The gradual easing of mobility restrictions generated significant improvement in the second half of the year, with volumes remaining broadly flat yearon-year due to two months of additional contribution from Engen-branded entities and marketing initiatives implemented to aid the recovery process. Unit margins were up 4% yearonyear at $570 per thousand litres (2019: $547 per thousand litres) due to favourable base oil prices.

Gross cash profit of $78 million was therefore 4% up year-on-year due to good unit margins and volumes.

retail lubricants

We sell Retail lubricants on the forecourt in our service stations to Retail customers and also through distributors to other consumers (B2C). Retail lubricants accounted for 62% of total segment volume (2019: 61%) and 63% of segment gross cash profit (2019: 60%).

Volumes sold were flat year-on-year despite the significant impact of lower traffic at our retail sites arising from COVID-19 containment measures. Following the easing of COVID-19 measures, the strong H2 2020 performance was driven by a range of sales promotions, active selling on our forecourts and engagement with our distributors. This demonstrates the strong underlying demand for lubricants in our markets due to the age of the car parc and the strength of our Lubricants brand.

Unit margins were higher year-onyear at $577per thousand litres (2019: $542 per thousand litres) due to improved sales of our premium lubricants in the second half of the year and favourable base oil prices.

commercial lubricants

We sell Commercial lubricants to customers across our operating units and also to export customers in other countries. Commercial volumes accounted for 38% of total Lubricants volume (2019: 39%) and 37% of gross cash profit (2019: 40%).

Volumes were down 4% to 52 million litres year-on-year mainly due to lower sales in several export markets. There were also lower sales volumes in the first half of the year in the construction and power sectors, which were impacted by lockdown restrictions. Significant improvements were, however, registered during the second half of the year as COVID-19 restrictions were gradually lifted.

Unit margins increased by 2% year-on-year to $569 per thousand litres (2019: $556 per thousand litres) due to the favourable product mix and lower base oil prices, partially offset by unfavourable exchange rate movements.

 

 

Financial review

CONSOLIDATED results of operations

summary income statement

US$ million

2020

2019

Change

Revenues

6,918

8,302

-17%

Cost of sales

(6,301)

(7,627)

-17%

Gross profit

617

675

-9%

Selling and marketing cost

(226)

(224)

+1%

General and administrative cost

(176)

(165)

+7%

Share of profit of joint ventures and associates

16

22

-27%

Other income/(expense)

4

2

+100%

EBIT

235

310

-24%

Finance expense - net

(60)

(64)

-6%

EBT

175

246

-29%

Income taxes

(85)

(96)

-11%

Net income

90

150

-40%

 

Earnings per share (US$)

2020

2019

 

Change

Basic

0.06

0.11

 

-45%

Diluted

0.06

0.11

 

-45%

 

NON-GAAP MEASURES

US$ million, unless otherwise indicated

2020

2019

 

Change

Volumes (million litres)

9,637

10,417

 

-7%

Gross cash profit

697

743

 

-6%

EBITDA

360

416

 

-13%

Adjusted EBITDA

360

431

 

-16%

ETR (%)

49%

39%

 

n/a

Adjusted net income

90

162

 

-44%

Adjusted diluted EPS (US$)

0.06

0.12

 

-50%

analysis of consolidated results of operations

Volumes

After a strong start to the year, with double digit volume growth in January and February, volumes sold were 7% lower
year-on-year due to severe mobility restrictions imposed in the first half of the year to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Aviation, Marine and Retail businesses were significantly impacted by these restrictions, while Commercial fuel and LPG remained robust. The Group made significant recovery in the second half of the year as the containment measures were gradually eased. Aviation sales however remained subdued due to continuing restrictions on international travel.

Revenue

Revenue was 17% down yearonyear at $6,918 million (2019: $8,302 million), reflecting the significant decline in crude oil prices and contraction in demand due to the COVID-19 related mobility restrictions.

Cost of Sales

Cost of sales were lower by $1,326 million, or 17%, to $6,301 million in 2020. The decrease is mainly due to lower purchases in line with sales volumes and lower cost of inventory due to the significant decrease in crude oil prices during the year.

Gross profit

Gross profit was $617 million, down 9% yearon-year mainly due to lower volumes, reflecting the effect of lower demand for oil products due to COVID-19.

Gross Cash profit

Gross cash profit was down 6% year-on-year to $697 million, mostly due to lower volumes, partially offset by higher gross cash unit margin. The Group started the year strongly, with over 20% growth in gross cash profit during the first two months of the year, before COVID-19 related restrictions caused an unprecedented drop in demand. The Group also took deliberate action at the peak of the pandemic to reduce inventory levels by making targeted sales of excess stock at lower margins. As restrictions were gradually eased across our markets, the Group saw a strong rebound in the second half of the year, with gross cash profit recovering well and unit margins benefiting from product mix and positive pricing. Accounting for hyperinflation however had a negative impact of c.$2 million (2019: +$3 million) on the gross cash profit.

Selling and Marketing cost

Selling and marketing cost remained broadly in line with 2019 and was mainly impacted by an additional two months cost contribution from Engenbranded markets and a first full year of amortisation relating to our newly implemented ERP system. This was partially offset by lower spend on marketing campaigns, a decrease in non-essential spend during the pandemic and favourable foreign currency exchange effects.

General and administrative cost

General and administrative cost, including special items, increased by $11 million to $176 million in 2020 (2019: $165 million). This was mainly due to two months' additional cost from Engen-branded markets, COVID-19 pandemic related donations provided to communities where Vivo Energy operates and higher depreciation and amortisation expense. The higher cost was partially offset by a positive foreign currency exchange effect.

Share of Profit from joint ventures and associates

Share of profit from joint ventures and associates decreased by $6 million to $16 million mainly due to the impact of
COVID-19 on SVL, our joint ventures in Morocco and our investments in QSR joint ventures that were negatively affected by temporary restaurant closures during lockdowns. In a number of markets, our QSRs were open and operating delivery and takeaway services in the second half of the year.

Other income

Other income of $4 million (2019: $2 million) mainly related to gains on disposal of PP&E.

Adjusted EBITDA

Adjusted EBITDA was $360 million, down 16% year-on-year. The decrease is mostly attributable to lower volumes linked to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, higher general and administrative cost and a lower share of profit from our joint ventures and associates.

Net finance expense

Net finance expense decreased by $4 million to $60 million, mainly due to foreign exchange gains and a lower impact resulting from the application of IAS 29 'Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies'. This was partially offset by higher interest expenses arising from increased use of short-term bank facilities at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic and an additional two months of contribution from the Engenbranded markets.

Income taxes

The ETR increased to 49% from 39% compared to the comparative period of 2019. The increase in the ETR is primarily due to the lower earnings before tax of $175 million (2019: $246 million) giving a higher relative impact of the permanent items and withholding tax on upstreamed dividends and central fees which are not linked to the current year earnings before tax level.

Net Income

Net income, including the impact of special items, was $90 million, down 40% from $150 million in 2019. Minority interest was $10 million for the year (2019: $14 million).

Earnings Per share

Basic earnings per share amounted to 6 cents per share (2019: 11 cents per share). Adjusted diluted earnings per share, excluding the impact of special items, were 6 cents per share (2019: 12 cents per share).

 

 

CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL POSITION

Assets

Trade receivables decreased by $107 million from $451 million in 2019 to $344 million in 2020. The decrease was largely due to the impact of lower sales volumes, as a result of lower demand, and declining crude oil prices. Average monthly DSO1 for the period was 16 days (2019: 17 days).

Other assets decreased by $50 million from $367 million in 2019 to $317 million, mainly due to a decrease in other government benefits receivable and prepayments, partially offset by loans to joint ventures.

Inventories decreased by $37 million from $517 million in 2019 to $480 million in 2020, mainly attributable to the decline in crude oil prices resulting in a lower stock value compared to 2019. Average inventory days for the period was 29 days (2019: 24 days), higher than 2019 as a result of lower market demand during the period.

Property, plant and equipment increased by $66 million from $823 million in 2019 to $889 million in 2020. Capital expenditure was the key driver for the increase, partially offset by depreciation for the period.

The increase in right-of-use assets of $25 million from $176 million in 2019 to $201 million in 2020 related to new leases, of which the majority were retail service stations, partially offset by depreciation for the period.

Investments in joint ventures and associates increased by $4 million, from $227 million in 2019 to $231 million in 2020, resulting from $16 million in share of profits and $14 million related to newly acquired joint ventures during the period. These new joint ventures are Kuku Foods with operations in Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda and Synergy Foods operating in Namibia. This increase was partially offset by a dividend received of $24 million.

Deferred tax assets increased by $12 million from $34 million in 2019 to $46 million in 2020 mainly due to the increase in leases and tax losses for the period.

Equity

Total equity increased by $8 million, from $804 million in 2019 to $812 million in 2020. The increase was primarily due to total comprehensive income for the year of $47 million, partially offset by dividends.

Liabilities

Trade payables decreased by $209 million from $1,257 million in 2019 to $1,048 million in 2020. The decrease was driven by lower purchases and costs, resulting from a global reduction in demand for fuel and declining crude oil prices. Average monthly DPO1 for the period was 54 days (2019: 55 days).

Borrowings increased by $82 million from $600 million in 2019 to $682 million in 2020. The increase is mainly attributable to the proceeds from notes issued of $350 million, during September 2020, and increased shortterm borrowing facilities to fund working capital requirements due to the impact of COVID-19 earlier in the year. The increase was partially offset by repayment of the Group's long and short-term loan obligations.

The increase in lease liabilities of $18 million from $125 million in 2019 to $143 million in 2020 related to new leases, in line with the increase in right of use assets, partially offset by the repayment of lease instalments for the period.

DIVIDENDS

The Board has adopted a progressive dividend policy while maintaining an appropriate level of dividend cover and sufficient financial flexibility in the Group.

As part of the Group's response to the impact of the pandemic, the Board prudently withdrew its recommendation to pay a final dividend for 2019 in order to protect its balance sheet. It also opted not to declare an interim dividend in respect of H1 2020 performance at the time. However, due to the rapid actions taken by the Group to protect our business, the resilience of our business model and the performance of the business in the second half of the year, our balance sheet remained strong. As a result, and in recognition of the importance of dividends to shareholders, the Board paid an interim dividend in December 2020, in place of the withdrawn 2019 final dividend.

The recommended 2020 final dividend of 3.8 cents per share represents performance during the full 12 months of 2020 and should be seen as the base for future dividends rather than the 2020 total dividends paid of 6.5 cents per share.

In March 2021, the Board decided to increase the minimum payout ratio from 30% to 50% of attributable net income to reflect the Group's cash flows, strong balance sheet and continuing growth ambitions. The dividend remains progressive and the intent is for future dividends to grow in line with earnings. The Group declares its dividends in US dollars.

1  Days sales outstanding (DSO) and days purchases outstanding (DPO) are based on monthly averages and on trade elements only.

 

 

 

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

adjusted FREE CASH FLOW

US$ million

2020

2019

Net income

90

150

Adjustment for non-cash items and other

214

202

Current income tax paid

(89)

(83)

Net change in operating assets and liabilities and other adjustments1

48

176

Cash flow from operating activities

263

445

Net additions of PP&E and intangible assets2

(163)

(147)

Free cash flow

100

298

Special items3

12

27

Adjusted free cash flow

112

325

1  Net change in operating assets and liabilities and other adjustments includes finance expense.

2  Excluding cash flow from acquisition of businesses and other investing activities.

3  Cash impact of special items. Special items are explained and reconciled in the Non-GAAP financial measures.

Adjusted free cash flow decreased by $213 million, from $325 million in 2019 to $112 million in 2020. The decrease was mainly due to lower cash inflows from operating activities, which were negatively affected by a decrease in the net change in operating assets and liabilities and other adjustments of $128 million and a decrease in net income of $60 million. In the prior year net changes in operating assets and liabilities and other adjustments benefitted from the timing of prepayments in relation to the fuel importation contracts in Kenya and the timing of payments to suppliers. During 2020, the Group had fewer importation contracts further contributing to the year-on-year decrease. The fluctuations in working capital are resulting from the impact of declining crude oil prices and market demand experienced during the year, and are the main drivers for the decrease in net change in operating assets and liabilities and other adjustments. Income tax paid amounted to $89 million for the year ended 31 December 2020 (2019: $83 million). Cash inflow from operating activities fully funded net capital expenditure of $163 million in 2020 (2019: $147 million).

capital expenditures

US$ million

2020

2019

Maintenance

 55

46

Growth

 101

88

Special projects

 12

15

Total

 168

149

 

 

 

US$ million

2020

2019

Retail

100

78

Commercial

29

27

Lubricants

3

2

Other (technology, supply and distribution and general corporate costs)

36

42

Total

168

149

Of which growth capital expenditure was:

101

88

Retail

74

61

Commercial

23

21

Lubricants

2

2

Other (technology, supply and distribution and general corporate costs)

2

4

Due to the impact of COVID-19 on the business, we strategically slowed down nonessential capital expenditure during the first half of the year. As a result of the rapid actions taken by the Group to protect the business and the resilience of our business model, investment into Growth accelerated in the second half of the year to take advantage of the opportunities in some of our markets. The majority of Growth expenditure was attributable to Retail projects which included the expansion of our retail network and Nonfuel retail offerings as well as acquisition of dealer networks in some of our markets. The 'Shining sites' project was established in 2019 to enhance our Retail network and ensure compliance with our stringent standards. During 2020, 320 retail sites were 'shined'.

Special projects relate to investments in the Group's new ERP system and projects to utilise its full potential for the business. In 2019, the Group implemented SAP S/4HANA in 15 countries and during 2020 we expanded this to a number of our joint venture and Group companies. The implementation process will continue in 2021 within the eight Engenbranded countries and is expected to be fully completed by the end of the year.

ROACE decreased from 21% in 2019 to 12% in 2020. The decrease is mainly due to lower earnings and an increase in capital employed compared to prior year.

NET DEBT AND AVAILABLE LIQUIDITY

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Long-term debt

408

371

Lease liabilities

143

125

Total debt excluding short-term bank borrowings

551

496

Short-term bank borrowings1

274

229

Less cash and cash equivalents

(515)

(517)

Net debt

310

208

1  Short-term bank borrowings exclude the current portion of the long-term debt.

 

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Net debt

310

208

Adjusted EBITDA1

360

431

Leverage ratio1

0.86x

0.48x

1  For the description and reconciliation of non-GAAP measures refer to the Non-GAAP financial measures below.

 

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Cash and cash equivalents

515

517

Available undrawn credit facilities

1,563

1,410

Available short-term capital resources

2,078

1,927

Long-term debt includes a revolving credit facility and $350 million in notes with a coupon rate of 5.125% paid semi-annually that were issued in September 2020. The notes mature in seven years and are fully redeemable at maturity. Shortterm bank borrowings include the individual operating entities' uncommitted unsecured short-term bank facilities consisting of a large number of uncommitted facilities (ranging from $1 million to $391 million). These facilities, which carry interest rates between 1.5% and 18.0% per annum, are extended by multiple local banks to operating units and are typically for a period of 12 months, automatically renewable. The Group's debt covenants are disclosed in the Consolidated financial statements note 23.

Net debt increased by $102 million from $208 million at 31 December 2019 to $310 million at 31 December 2020. The increase in net debt was mainly due to an increase in the Group's short-term bank borrowings and long-term debt.
Short-term bank borrowings increased as a result of increased facility utilisation to fund working capital requirements due to the impact of COVID-19 earlier in the year. The increase in long-term debt was mainly attributable to the notes issuance and new leases for the period, partially offset by settlement of the term loan.

Despite the difficult year, the Group maintained a healthy balance sheet with a leverage ratio of 0.86x in 2020. This increase is mainly attributable to a higher net debt and a lower adjusted EBITDA in the current year.

The available undrawn credit facilities of $1,563 million comprise the remaining balance of $240 million of the undrawn and uncommitted multi-currency revolving credit facility and $1,323 million of undrawn unsecured shortterm bank facilities extended to our operating entities for working capital purposes.
 

The table below sets the Group's financial liabilities into relevant maturity groupings based on the remaining period at the reporting date to the contractual maturity date. The amounts disclosed are the contractual undiscounted cash flows:

 

US$ million

 

 

 

 

31 December 2020

 

Less than
3 months

Between
3 months
and 1 year

Between
1 and 2 years

Between
2 and 5 years

 

Over

5 years

Total

Borrowings1

266

2

6

60

350

684

Trade payables

1,040

8

-

-

-

1,048

Lease liabilities

7

28

29

59

94

217

Other liabilities2

13

22

17

2

161

215

Total

1,326

60

52

121

605

2,164

1  Borrowings exclude the undrawn multi-currency revolving credit facility of $240 million.

2  Other liabilities (note 26) exclude the elements that do not qualify as financial instruments.

The Group has purchase obligations, for capital and operational expenditure, under various agreements, made in the normal course of business. The purchase obligations are as follows, as at:

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Purchase obligations

22

13

Total

22

13

 

 

 

NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES

Non-GAAP measures are not defined by International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and, therefore, may not be directly comparable with other companies' nonGAAP measures, including those in our industry. Non-GAAP measures should be considered in addition to, and are not intended to be a substitute for, or superior to, IFRS measurements.

The exclusion of certain items from nonGAAP performance measures does not imply that these items are necessarily
non-recurring. From time to time, we may exclude additional items if we believe doing so would result in a more transparent and comparable disclosure.

The Directors believe that reporting nonGAAP financial measures in addition to IFRS measures provides users with an enhanced understanding of results and related trends and increases the transparency and clarity of the core results of our operations. NonGAAP measures are used by the Directors and management for performance analysis, planning, reporting and key management performance measures.

Term

Description

Term

Description

Gross cash profit

This is a measure of gross profit after direct operating expenses and before
non-cash depreciation and amortisation recognised in cost of sales. Reference to 'cash' in this measure refers to non-cash depreciation and amortisation as opposed to the elimination of working capital movements. Gross cash profit is a key management performance measure.

Gross cash unit margin

Gross cash profit per unit. Unit is defined as 1,000 litres of sales volume. This is a useful measure as it indicates the incremental profit for each additional unit sold.

EBITDA

Earnings before finance expense, finance income, income tax, depreciation and amortisation. This measure provides the Group's operating profitability and results before non-cash charges and is a key management performance measure.

Adjusted EBITDA

EBITDA adjusted for the impact of special items. This is a useful measure as it provides the Group's operating profitability and results, before non-cash charges and is an indicator of the core operations, exclusive of special items.

Adjusted net
income

Net income adjusted for the impact of special items.

Adjusted diluted EPS

Diluted EPS adjusted for the impact of special items.

Special items

Income or charges that are not considered to represent the underlying operational performance and, based on their significance in size or nature, are presented separately to provide further understanding of the financial and operational performance.

Adjusted free cash flow

Cash flow from operating activities less net additions to PP&E and intangible assets and excluding the impact of special items. This is a key operational liquidity measure, as it indicates the cash available to pay dividends, repay debt or make further investments in the Group.

Net debt

Total borrowings and lease liabilities less cash and cash equivalents.

Leverage ratio

Net debt, including lease liability, divided by last 12 months adjusted EBITDA.

Adjusted EBIT

 

Earnings before finance expense, finance income and income taxes adjusted for special items. The Group views adjusted EBIT as a useful measure because it shows the Group's profitability and the ability to generate profits by excluding the impact of tax and the capital structure, as well as excluding income or charges that are not considered to represent the underlying operational performance.

Return on average capital employed
(ROACE)

Adjusted EBIT after income tax, using the actual consolidated ETR, divided by the average capital employed. Average capital employed is the average of opening and closing net assets plus borrowings and lease liabilities, less cash and cash equivalents and interest bearing advances. ROACE is a useful measure because it shows the profitability of the Group considering the average amount of capital used.

 

 

 

RECONCILIATION OF NON-GAAP financial MEASURES

US$ million

2020

2019

Gross profit

617

675

Add back: depreciation and amortisation in cost of sales

80

68

Gross cash profit

697

743

Volume (million litres)

9,637

10,417

Gross cash unit margin ($/'000 litres)

72

71

 

US$ million

2020

2019

EBT

175

246

Finance expense - net

60

64

EBIT

235

310

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

125

106

EBITDA

360

416

Adjustments to EBITDA related to special items:

 

 

Hyperinflation1

2

-

IPO2 and Engen acquisition related expenses3

1

11

Write-off of non-current asset4

-

3

Restructuring5

-

3

Management Equity Plan6

(3)

(2)

Adjusted EBITDA

360

431

 

US$ million

2020

2019

Net income

90

150

Adjustments to net income related to special items:

 

 

Hyperinflation1

2

-

IPO2 and Engen acquisition related expenses3

1

11

Write-off of non-current asset4

-

3

Restructuring5

-

3

Management Equity Plan6

(3)

(2)

Tax on special items

-

(3)

Adjusted net income

90

162

1  The impacts of accounting for hyperinflation for Vivo Energy Zimbabwe, in accordance with IAS 29, are treated as special items since they are not considered to represent the underlying operational performance of the Group and based on their significance in size and unusual nature are excluded as the local currency depreciation against the US dollar does not align to the published inflation rates during the period.

2  IPO related items in 2020 and 2019 concern the IPO share awards which are accrued for over the vesting period.

3  On 1 March 2019 Vivo Energy Investments B.V., a subsidiary of the Group, acquired 100% of the issued shares in Vivo Energy Overseas Holdings Limited (VEOHL) (formerly known as Engen International Holdings (Mauritius) Limited). The cost of the acquisition and related integration project expenses are treated as special items.

4  The Group recognised a write-off in 2019 related to a government benefits receivable as a result of a retrospective price structure change by the government to finance their outstanding debt. Such retrospective changes of existing price structures are considered non-recurring and are not representative of the core operational business activities and performance and are, therefore, treated as special items.

5  Restructuring costs were incurred in 2019 mainly as a result of the integration of VEOHL into our business model. The impact from these activities do not form part of the core operational business activities and performance and were, therefore, treated as a special item in 2019.

6  The Management Equity Plan vested at IPO in May 2018 and is exercisable on the first anniversary of admission for a period of 24 months. Changes in the fair value of the cash-settled share-based plan do not form part of the core operational business activities and performance and should, therefore, be treated as a special item. The costs of share-based payment schemes introduced after the IPO are not treated as special items.

 

 

 

US$

2020

2019

Diluted earnings per share

0.06

0.11

Impact of special items

-

0.01

Adjusted diluted earnings per share

0.06

0.12

 

US$ million, unless otherwise indicated

2020

2019

EBIT

235

310

Adjustments to EBIT related to special items:

 

 

Hyperinflation1

2

-

IPO2 and Engen acquisition related expenses3

1

11

Write-off of non-current asset4

-

3

Restructuring5

-

3

Management Equity Plan6

(3)

(2)

Adjusted EBIT

235

325

ETR (%)7

49%

39%

Adjusted EBIT after tax

120

198

Average capital employed

1,021

956

ROACE

12%

21%

1  The impacts of accounting for hyperinflation for Vivo Energy Zimbabwe, in accordance with IAS 29, are treated as special items since they are not considered to represent the underlying operational performance of the Group and based on their significance in size and unusual nature are excluded as the local currency depreciation against the US dollar does not align to the published inflation rates during the period.

2  IPO related items in 2020 and 2019 concern the IPO share awards which are accrued for over the vesting period.

3  On 1 March 2019 Vivo Energy Investments B.V., a subsidiary of the Group, acquired 100% of the issued shares in Vivo Energy Overseas Holdings Limited (VEOHL) (formerly known as Engen International Holdings (Mauritius) Limited). The cost of the acquisition and related integration project expenses are treated as special items.

4  The Group recognised a write-off in 2019 related to a government benefits receivable as a result of a retrospective price structure change by the government to finance their outstanding debt. Such retrospective changes of existing price structures are considered non-recurring and are not representative of the core operational business activities and performance and are, therefore, treated as special items.

5  Restructuring costs were incurred in 2019 mainly as a result of the integration of VEOHL into our business model. The impact from these activities do not form part of the core operational business activities and performance and were, therefore, treated as a special item in 2019.

6  The Management Equity Plan vested at IPO in May 2018 and is exercisable on the first anniversary of admission for a period of 24 months. Changes in the fair value of the cash-settled share-based plan do not form part of the core operational business activities and performance and should, therefore, be treated as a special item. The costs of share-based payment schemes introduced after the IPO are not treated as special items.

7  Represents the actual consolidated ETR without the impact of special items on the ETR.
 

PRINCIPAL RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES

Our activities are exposed to various risks and uncertainties. These are risks that we assess as relevant and significant to our business at this time, however other risks could emerge in the future.

Overall, our risk management programme focuses on the unpredictability of the global market and seeks to minimise potential adverse effects on financial performance. In addition to the risks and uncertainties presented below, our ability to simultaneously manage the multiple growth generating projects is closely monitored by all relevant control functions.

Brand & Reputational

our risk

 

risk impact

 

our mitigation

 

1. Partner reputation and relationships

Our business depends on a small number of key contractual brand relationships with our brand partners, Shell and Engen. We also rely on our own business reputation and brand in order to successfully grow our business and develop new relationships with other brand partners.

Our ability to grow and maintain our business in our markets and beyond depends on the reputation of our business partners and relationships (including our brand partners).

 

 

The termination of any key brand licence could have a material impact on our ability to grow or maintain our business and could have a material cost impact on current operations.

The deterioration of our brand name, or of any of our business relationships, including with our existing brand partners, may prevent collaboration opportunities with existing or new partners, thus hindering growth plans of the Group.

A negative trend or development in the brand or reputation of one of our key business partners could adversely impact our current business and future growth plans if it were to adversely impact consumer sentiment towards the brands under which we operate.

 

 

Our brand licence agreements contain customary termination provisions which provide that they can only be terminated in very specific circumstances rather than for mere convenience. Such termination provisions relate, inter alia, to events of material breach, insolvency etc. We have developed appropriate processes and procedures to monitor and ensure our compliance with the terms of our brand agreements thus preserving both the relationships with our brand partners and the sanctity of our key contractual relationships. The Group's corporate reputation risk is one of the key risk categories subject to an ongoing assessment and mitigation in our risk management approach. It is continuously monitored and reported as part of the risk register and internal audit reporting.

We endeavour to only enter into brand relationships with well-established and reputable partners who are less likely to suffer significant loss of reputation or brand value. In all our key contracts and relationships, we ensure our partners adhere to ethical, HSSEQ and other operational standards that meet or exceed our own standards. Stringent Know Your Customer (KYC) procedures are performed prior to entering any contract over the Group's low level threshold (and regardless of any value when the counterparty is related to a defined list of sanctioned countries) and repeated frequently. We promote and develop the communities in which we operate to help build the Vivo Energy brand as the most respected energy business in Africa.

 

2. Criminal activity, fraud, bribery and compliance risk

The countries where we operate are exposed to high levels of risk relating to criminal activity, fraud, bribery, theft and corruption.

There are a number of regulatory requirements applicable to the Group. The related risk of noncompliance with these regulations has increased following the listing and the Engen transaction.

The COVID-19 pandemic and new ways of working have created increased opportunities for fraudsters, with an increase in
cyber-fraud activity reported.

 

 

Violations of anti-bribery, anticorruption laws, and other regulatory requirements may result in significant criminal or civil sanctions, which could disrupt our business, damage its reputation and result in a material adverse effect on the business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

 

We provide compliance training programmes to employees at all levels.

Our Code of Conduct and KYC procedures, along with various other policies and safeguards, have been designed to prevent the occurrence of fraud, bribery, theft and corruption within the Group.

We have a confidential whistleblowing helpline for employees, contractors, customers and other third parties to raise ethical concerns or questions.

We regularly maintain and update our information technology and control systems within the Group.

The Head of Ethics and Compliance and the Head of Forensics are involved in mitigating fraudulent activities in the Group.

We strive to ensure our anti-bribery management systems continue to be certified compliant under the ISO 37001 standard.

We have further strengthened our controls in 2020 by providing online training and guidance for all staff on how to work from home securely.

 

 

 

 

pricing

our risk

 

risk impact

 

our mitigation

 

3. Oil price fluctuations

The price of oil and oil products may fluctuate, preventing us from realising our targeted margins, specifically in the deregulated markets in which we operate.

The COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented volatility in oil prices throughout 2020.

 

Higher supply costs in deregulated markets result in higher prices for our products and could reduce our ability to achieve targeted unit margins.

Price fluctuations could negatively impact the value of stocks, resulting in stock losses.

 

Exposure to commodity price risk is mitigated through careful inventory and supply chain management as well as dynamic pricing.

We have adapted the management of critical operational and finance activities, increasing the frequency at which the Group monitors its supply commitments, demand and stocks in the current high volatility environment.

 

4. Currency exchange risk

We are exposed to foreign exchange risk, currency exchange controls, currency shortage and other currencyrelated risks.

Our risk includes potential hyperinflation in several countries, as we are currently experiencing in Zimbabwe.

Emerging market currencies have been hit hard by the global market sell-off on the back of the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

Depreciation of foreign currency exchange rates could result in severe financial losses.

 

 

Our treasury policy requires each country to manage its foreign exchange risks. The Central Treasury team approves all hedging plans before they are actioned to ensure they are aligned with our strategic focus.

We mitigate currency exchange risks through margin and pricing strategies.

Since the start of the pandemic, we have increased the frequency at which the Group monitors its forex exposures.

 

HEALTH, SAFETY, SECURITY & environment

our risk

 

risk impact

 

our mitigation

 

5. Health and Safety

We are exposed to accidents or incidents relating to health, safety and the environment and from such accidents relating to employees.

We are further subject to HSSEQ laws and regulations and industry standards related to each of the countries in which we operate.

This is our principal risk most impacted by COVID-19. Main risk relates to staff or business partners contracting the virus, entailing threats to life and business continuity.

 

We may incur potential liabilities arising from HSSEQ accidents/incidents.

Brand reputation can be severely impacted, along with employee confidence.

Regulators and authorities may impose fines, disrupt our operations and disallow permits for future ventures.

The health and safety of our staff and business partners are at risk due to COVID-19. Unavailability of staff, contractors or retailers could also lead to closure of key sites.

 

We ensure all safety measures for our retail service stations, storage sites, and employees are maintained at international standards.

We invest significantly in training and technology to improve road transport safety.

The highest emphasis is placed on process safety, and minimising security risks to our people, our facilities and the communities in which we operate.

We require all our contractors and partners to manage their HSSEQ policies and practices in line with ours.

On an ongoing basis, safety and security drills, campaigns and programmes are conducted to ensure widespread knowledge of the Group's HSSEQ principles and procedures.

In addition to our ongoing, daily attention to HSSEQ, we hold an annual Safety Day, which creates an opportunity for all employees to refocus on the importance of HSSEQ of our Group. The day is used to reinforce safety measures as well as raise awareness of key issues.

Our BCCP has been reviewed (ensuring presence of critical staff, in particular those involved in site security) and COVID-19 protocols developed and implemented to cope with the pandemic specific risks. This includes international travel restrictions, adherence to World Health Organization guidelines and national legislation, special PPE and donning/doffing procedures, revised site access and visit controls, office and asset recovery and reintegration plan and engagement of key stakeholders including hauliers and contractors. Finally, recommendation was made for all non-essential physical work to be done remotely and business meetings to be virtual.

 

 

 

 

our risk

 

risk impact

 

our mitigation

 

 

6. ECONOMIC AND GOVERNMENTAL INSTABILITY

Several countries and regions in which we operate have experienced economic and political instability that could adversely affect the economy of our markets.

 

An economic slowdown which adversely affects, for example, disposable income, vehicle distance driven, or infrastructure development, in one or more of these regions could negatively impact our sales and have a material adverse effect on the business, financial conditions and operational results.

The pandemic and its social and economic consequences could negatively impact the stability of some of the countries where we do operate, intensifying social tensions.

 

We closely monitor evolving issues in markets.

We ensure appropriate responses and business continuity plans are developed to minimise disruptions.

All local regulatory environments and changes are closely monitored.

 

 

operational

our risk

 

risk impact

 

our mitigation

 

 

7. PRODUCT AVAILABILITY AND SUPPLY

We are dependent upon the supply of fuels, lubricants, and additives from various suppliers. When raw materials are needed urgently, asymmetric negotiations occur. The bargaining power shifts to the supplier who in turn can charge a higher price.

Furthermore, we are restricted by limited storage capacity within some country facilities.

In the short-term, the pandemic led to an over-supply of crude oil leading to crude oil prices declining to historically low levels. The long-term impact on oil producers remains unpredictable and there may be future impacts on production and supply capacity.

 

The increased procurement costs could lower our margins.

Limited supply of products and storage facilities may result in stock outs. This could further result in breach of contract and disruptions to our operations, leaving us susceptible to fines or penalties.

 

 

We ensure optimal inventory management through close monitoring of inventory days, sales and other factors which may require additional inventory levels.

We monitor our suppliers' political and social environments, and realign our purchasing strategies as necessary.

We have increased storage capacity at strategic locations within Africa, following the Engen acquisition.

Since the outbreak of the pandemic, we have adapted the management and increased the frequency of monitoring of our supply commitments, demand and stocks.

 

 

8. business concentration risk

A large part of the Group's operations (and margins) are derived from Morocco when compared to other countries.

 

 

Any unfavourable changes in market dynamics, such as the re-imposition of pricing regulations for fuel, or downturns in the performance of the operations overall, may lead to a decline in the Group's performance.

 

Overall diversification is the key strategy and control measure.

The completion of the Engen transaction has increased the geographic diversification and reduced the relative weighting of the Shellbranded operating units, including Morocco, in the Group's operations and volumes.

 

 

9. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RISK

Our organisation is currently migrating to a new ERP, a critical project that will redesign some of our operations, functions and controls.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Group experienced an increase in phishing attacks and cyber-fraud activity reported.

 

Inadequate processes and segregation of duties may impact the quality of the operations and controls, making fraud detection difficult. Data quality and management issues may have financial, operational or compliance consequences leading to increased (financial and operating) costs and missed opportunities.

Cyber-crime can lead to significant and direct financial losses, costly and timeconsuming business disruption and impact reputation.

 

Significant achievements have been completed in the 'enhancements and fixes' programme designed to ensure the Group can take full advantage of its new ERP now operational in the 15 Shellbranded countries. Deployment in the Engenbranded countries (most of them already operating with a solution from the same vendor) has started and is expected to be completed during 2021 allowing a full integration of all operating units into the Group's platform.

The Group has developed its control activities to strengthen its cyber-defence capacity and efficiency to identify and block attacks. The last penetration test conducted in 2020 by an external firm confirmed that our security controls are above industry average.

 

 

 

 

strategic

our risk

 

risk impact

 

our mitigation

 

10. Acquisition Integration

We may be unable to identify or accurately evaluate suitable acquisition candidates or to complete or integrate past or prospective acquisitions successfully and/or in a timely manner, which could materially adversely affect growth.

 

 

We may incur write-downs, impairment charges or unforeseen liabilities, placing strain on financial resources.

Occurrences of indebtedness could result in increased obligations and include covenants or other restrictions that limit operational flexibility.

 

 

All acquisition decisions are intensively reviewed at several stages with ultimate approval by the Board.
This ensures risks at all levels are being assessed and mitigated throughout the process.

We ensure there are detailed integration plans with realistic timelines as well as designated teams to execute the plans.

Tailored on-boarding and training is delivered
post-acquisition to ensure a smooth and efficient transition.

The Engen-branded operating units acquired in 2019 operate in line with the Group procedures and policies. The integration programme to align all key functions and activities to the Group standards has proved to be efficient. Operations are measured through key performance indicators.

 

11. CLIMATE CHANGE

 

 

 

The increasing global actions to mitigate climate change and its impacts may lead to changes in our regulatory environments, customer behaviours and access to capital in the future which could materially impact the Group's future prospects.

 

 

Shift in customer behaviours, expectations and the development and adoption of affordable clean technology may impact future fuel demand.

Non-adherence to evolving regulation, brand partner expectations, technology adoption and customer needs exposes the Group to compliance and financial risks. Brand reputation can be severely impacted, along with employee confidence.

Financial markets may focus capital away from carbon intensive industries, increasing the cost of capital for the Group.

 

We have a range of initiatives underway in order to limit our environmental impact through efficiency measures, cleaner fuels and alternative product offerings.

We are developing an assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on future fuel demand, access to finance, regulation and the impact of extreme weather events into our business model, strategy and financial planning process.

We have enhanced the Governance oversight of ESG matters, including climate change, and the Nominations and Governance Committee now assists the Board with oversight of the Group's climate change and ESG plans and strategy including its readiness to support the transition to a lower carbon future in our markets.

The Group intends to enhance its future reporting regarding climate change in order to comply with the Task Force for Climate Related Financial Disclosures in line with the UK Government's expectations.

 

12. EPIDEMIC

 

 

 

 

 

We face the risk of prolonged impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic, or experience new and recurrent epidemics, worldwide, that may have dramatic effects on humans, economies and security.

 

 

The COVID-19 pandemic led to a dramatic drop in demand for oil and gas products due to the level of mobility restrictions imposed by governments. These restrictions may be replicated in the event of future pandemics.

The reduction in demand and subsequent change in product pricing could have a material impact on the entire fuel supply chain, from suppliers and distributors to dealers operating sites, as well as on the stability of the impacted countries.

Future pandemics may also lead to different changes in government actions and consumer behaviour that require the Group to rapidly adapt and manage its key operational and financial variables.

Africa has experienced several epidemic crises over the past decades, including Ebola in 2013-2016, with authorities taking strong measures such as lockdowns and curfews to limit the spread of contaminations which in turn severely impacted the economies.

 

We have adapted the management of the critical operational and finance activities, increasing the frequency at which the Group monitors its credit, supply commitments, demand, stocks, payables and foreign exchange exposures in a highvolatility environment.

Despite the sudden and unexpected outbreak of the pandemic, the Group Business Continuity Plans were immediately activated to keep employees, retailers and contractors safe and ensure the security of our critical sites and operations. The Group has been able to maintain supply to its retail sites and commercial customers.

In parallel, the Group provided support to communities, made a series of donations and brought logistic assistance to public COVID-19 operational management facilities in several countries.

 

 

 

financial

our risk

 

risk impact

 

our mitigation

 

13. Credit management

We face risks arising from credit exposure to commercial and retail customers as well as governments, including outstanding receivables and committed transactions.

The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the solvency and liquidity of most of our customers, with a heightened effect on the Aviation sector.

 

This may result in financial loss as a result of bad debts and lost revenue.

Exceeding payment terms will result in lower working capital, potentially creating liquidity challenges for the business.

 

 

We maintain country-specific Credit Policy Manuals which ensure a harmonised, cost effective and valueadding credit process in all classes of business.

Continuous monitoring of outstanding credit balances ensures our overall risk remains within our tolerance.

We impose strict guidelines and procedures should customers exceed the credit limits set.

Credit limits are set on an individual basis following assessment of the customer through KYC procedures.

We use debtor factorisation when considered cost effective.

We increased the frequency of our credit exposures monitoring and took rapid and coordinated action to stabilise our business and support our teams from the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. We saw elevated levels of overdue accounts early in the pandemic but worked successfully with customers to support them with their payments. At yearend, Credit KPIs are within target.

 

human resources and talent management

our risk

 

risk impact

 

our mitigation

 

14. HUMAN RESOURCES AND TALENT MANAGEMENT

Our ability to attract, train and grow people as well as retain talent is key to the continuing success of the Group.

During the pandemic, our human resources and talent management risk has been impacted by governmental limitations on movements, delaying some international assignments and relocations. Some local measures may also affect our ability to move talent between countries in the future.

 

Increased costs caused by staff inefficiency.

Interruptions to operations and delay in new projects.

Key people leaving the Group, with some joining competitors.

Disputes, strikes and substandard performance.

Loss of staff enjoyment, motivation, connectedness and attachment to the company.

 

 

We benchmark compensation packages and employee policies against market practice.

We invest in employee training and career development.

We use on-boarding workshops to ensure that new employees are familiar with our business, our culture and their roles when joining the Group.

We maintain constructive dialogue with unions and workforce representatives.

We maintain detailed succession plans and talent management programmes.

The Group has deployed a new communication approach and ways of working to keep connected with all staff throughout the pandemic.

 

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

 

US$ million

Notes

2020

2019

Revenues

5

6,918

8,302

Cost of sales

 

(6,301)

(7,627)

Gross profit

5

617

675

Selling and marketing cost

 

(226)

(224)

General and administrative cost

7

(176)

(165)

Share of profit of joint ventures and associates

13

16

22

Other income/(expense)

8

4

2

Earnings before interest and tax (EBIT)

6

235

310

Finance income

 

12

7

Finance expense

 

(72)

(71)

Finance expense - net

9

(60)

(64)

Earnings before tax (EBT)

 

175

246

Income taxes

10

(85)

(96)

Net income

6

90

150

 

 

 

 

Net income attributable to:

 

 

 

Equity holders of Vivo Energy plc

 

80

136

Non-controlling interest (NCI)

 

10

14

 

 

90

150

Other comprehensive income (OCI)

 

 

 

Items that may be reclassified to profit or loss

 

 

 

Currency translation differences

 

(23)

(42)

Net investment hedge (loss)/gain

 

(17)

3

Items that will not be reclassified to profit or loss

 

 

 

Re-measurement of retirement benefits

 

(5)

-

Income tax relating to retirement benefits

 

1

-

Change in fair value of financial instruments through OCI

14

1

1

Other comprehensive income, net of tax

 

(43)

(38)

Total comprehensive income

 

47

112

 

 

 

 

Total comprehensive income attributable to:

 

 

 

Equity holders of Vivo Energy plc

 

41

113

Non-controlling interest (NCI)

 

6

(1)

 

 

47

112

Earnings per share (US$)

21

 

 

Basic

 

0.06

0.11

Diluted

 

0.06

0.11

The notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

NON-GAAP MEASURES

US$ million, unless otherwise indicated

 

2020

2019

EBITDA

 

360

416

Adjusted EBITDA

 

360

431

Adjusted net income

 

90

162

Adjusted diluted EPS (US$)

 

0.06

0.12

 

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION

 

US$ million

Notes

31 December 2020

 

31 December 2019

Assets

 

 

 

 

Non-current assets

 

 

 

 

Property, plant and equipment

11

889

 

823

Right-of-use assets

27

201

 

176

Intangible assets

12

222

 

226

Investments in joint ventures and associates

13

231

 

227

Deferred income taxes

10

46

 

34

Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income

14

12

 

9

Other assets

16

117

 

110

 

 

1,718

 

1,605

Current assets

 

 

 

 

Inventories

17

480

 

517

Trade receivables

18

344

 

451

Other assets

16

200

 

257

Income tax receivables

 

11

 

9

Cash and cash equivalents

19

515

 

517

 

 

1,550

 

1,751

Total assets

 

3,268

 

3,356

 

 

 

 

 

Equity

 

 

 

 

Share capital

20

 633

 

633

Share premium

 

 4

 

4

Retained earnings

 

 252

 

199

Other reserves

 

 (122)

 

(85)

Attributable to equity holders of Vivo Energy plc

 

 767

 

751

Non-controlling interest

 

 45

 

53

Total equity

 

 812

 

804

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities

 

 

 

 

Non-current liabilities

 

 

 

 

Lease liabilities

27

119

 

104

Borrowings

23

412

 

294

Provisions

24, 25

104

 

102

Deferred income taxes

10

72

 

66

Other liabilities

26

165

 

160

 

 

872

 

726

Current liabilities

 

 

 

 

Lease liabilities

27

24

 

21

Trade payables

 

1,048

 

1,257

Borrowings

23

270

 

306

Provisions

24, 25

16

 

14

Other financial liabilities

15

9

 

3

Other liabilities

26

171

 

178

Income tax payables

 

46

 

47

 

 

1,584

 

1,826

Total liabilities

 

2,456

 

2,552

Total equity and liabilities

 

3,268

 

3,356

The notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

The consolidated financial statements were approved by the Board of Directors and authorised for issue on 2 March 2021 and were signed on its behalf by:

Christian Chammas  Johan Depraetere
Chief Executive OFFICER  Chief Financial Officer

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY

 

 

 

 

 

Attributable to equity holders of Vivo Energy plc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other reserves

 

 

 

 

US$ million

Notes

Share capital

Share
premium

Retained earnings

Reserves1

Retirement benefits

Currency translation difference

Fair value reserves

Equity-settled incentive schemes2

Total

NCI

Total equity

 

Balance at 1 January 2020

633

4

199

(54)

2

(43)

2

8

751

53

804

 

Net income

 

-

-

80

-

-

-

-

-

80

10

90

Other comprehensive income

-

-

-

-

(4)

(36)

1

-

(39)

(4)

(43)

Total comprehensive income

-

-

80

-

(4)

(36)

1

-

41

6

47

Share-based expense

30

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

3

-

3

Share issuance related to share awards

30

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

(1)

-

-

-

Transactions with NCI

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(4)

(4)

Net impact of IAS 293

 

-

-

6

-

-

-

-

-

6

-

6

Dividends paid/declared4

22

-

-

(34)

-

-

-

-

-

(34)

(10)

(44)

Balance at 31 December 2020

 633

 4

 252

 (54)

 (2)

 (79)

 3

 10

767

 45

812

 

 

Attributable to equity holders of Vivo Energy plc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other reserves

 

 

 

US$ million

Notes

Share capital

Share
premium

Retained earnings

Reserves1

Retirement benefits

Currency translation difference

Fair value reserves

Equity-settled incentive schemes2

Total

NCI

Total
equity

Balance at 1 January 2019

601

3

72

(136)

2

(19)

1

9

533

48

581

Net income

 

-

-

136

-

-

-

-

-

136

14

150

Other comprehensive income

-

-

-

-

-

(24)

1

-

(23)

(15)

(38)

Total comprehensive income

-

-

136

-

-

(24)

1

-

113

(1)

112

Share-based expense

30

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

1

Share issuance related to acquisition1

 

31

-

-

82

-

-

-

-

113

12

125

Share issuance related to share awards

30

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

(2)

-

-

-

Transactions with NCI

 

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

2

4

6

Net impact of IAS 293

 

-

-

19

-

-

-

-

-

19

-

19

Dividends paid4

22

-

-

(30)

-

-

-

-

-

(30)

(10)

(40)

Balance at 31 December 2019

633

4

199

(54)

2

(43)

2

8

751

53

804

                                           

The notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

1  Included in reserves is a merger reserve ($82m) relating to the premium on shares issued as part of the consideration of the acquisition of Vivo Energy Overseas Holdings Limited (VEOHL), formerly known as Engen International Holdings (Mauritius) Limited in March 2019.

2  Equity-settled incentive schemes include the Long-Term Incentive Plan ('LTIP') and the IPO Share Award Plan.

3  The net impact on retained earnings as a result of the index-based adjustments in Zimbabwe under IAS 29 'Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies'.

4  The dividends paid to the equity holders of Vivo Energy plc were paid out of distributable reserves.

 

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS

 

US$ million

Notes

2020

2019

Operating activities

 

 

 

Net income

 

90

150

Adjustment for:

 

 

 

Income taxes

10

85

96

Amortisation, depreciation and impairment

11, 12, 27

125

106

Net gain on disposals of PP&E and intangible assets

8

(4)

-

Share of profit of joint ventures and associates

13

(16)

(22)

Dividends received from joint ventures and associates

13

24

22

Current income tax paid

 

(89)

(83)

Net change in operating assets and liabilities and other adjustments

28

48

176

Cash flows from operating activities

 

263

445

Investing activities

 

 

 

Acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired

 

(9)

(16)

Purchases of PP&E and intangible assets

11, 12

(168)

(149)

Proceeds from disposals of PP&E and intangible assets

8, 11, 12

5

2

Other investing activities

 

-

3

Cash flows from investing activities

 

(172)

(160)

Financing activities

 

 

 

Proceeds from long-term debt

23

517

62

Repayment of long-term debt

23

(492)

(82)

Net (repayments)/proceeds (of)/from bank and other borrowings

23

26

1

Repayment of lease liabilities

27

(31)

(27)

Dividends paid

 

(43)

(40)

Interest paid

 

(62)

(51)

Cash flows from financing activities

 

(85)

(137)

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

 

(8)

(24)

Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

 

(2)

124

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of the year

 

517

393

Cash and cash equivalents at end of the year

19

515

517

The notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

 

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

1. General information

Vivo Energy plc (the 'Company') a public limited company, was incorporated on 12 March 2018 in the United Kingdom under the Companies Act 2006 (Registration number 11250655). The Company is listed on the London Stock Exchange Main Market for listed securities and the Main Board of the securities exchange operated by the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. References to 'Vivo Energy' or the 'Group' mean the Company and its subsidiaries and subsidiary undertakings. These consolidated financial statements as at and for the period ended 31 December 2020 comprise the Company, its subsidiaries and subsidiary undertakings, joint ventures and associates.

On 1 March 2019, Vivo Energy Investments B.V. acquired a 100% shareholding in Vivo Energy Overseas Holding Limited (VEOHL) formerly known as Engen International Holdings (Mauritius) Limited. Upon completion of the transaction, Vivo Energy extended operations in eight new markets and added over 200 Engen-branded service stations to the existing network.

Vivo Energy distributes and sells fuel and lubricants to retail and commercial consumers in Africa and trades under brands owned by the Shell and Engen group of companies and, for aviation fuels only, under the Vitol Aviation brand. Furthermore, Vivo Energy generates revenue from Non-fuel retail activities including convenience retail and quick service restaurants by leveraging on its retail network.

2. Basis of preparation AND GOING CONCERN

The financial information does not constitute the Company's statutory accounts for the years ended 31 December 2020 or 31 December 2019, but is derived from those accounts. Statutory accounts for 2020 will be delivered to the Registrar of Companies in due course. The auditor has reported on those accounts; their reports were (i) unqualified, (ii) did not include a reference to any matters to which the auditor drew attention by way of emphasis without qualifying their reports and (iii) did not contain a statement under section 498 (2) or (3) of the Companies Act 2006. The audit of the statutory accounts for the year ended 31 December 2020 is now complete. Whilst the financial information included in this announcement has been computed in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS") this announcement does not itself contain sufficient information to comply with IFRS.

This announcement was approved by the Board of Directors on 2 March 2021.

The Group has considered the impact of COVID-19 and the current economic environment in relation to the going concern basis of preparation for the consolidated financial statements. For the purposes of the going concern assessment the Directors have considered a period to 31 December 2022 using base case forecasts for this period taken from the 2021 five-year strategic plan. The Group has prepared the five-year strategic plan taking into consideration the impact of the current year and its effect on future performance. The Group has prepared a range of stress test scenarios including a severe but plausible downside sensitivity analysis. The plausible downside sensitivity assumes the impact and restrictions of COVID-19 experienced in 2020 continue to impact the 2021 financial performance with lower volume growth and gross cash unit margins in comparison to the base case scenario for 2021. During 2022, the Group does not expect to be severely impacted from COVID-19 and has therefore forecast a recovery in the financial position.

The Group has considered the impact of restrictions on its operations with Retail, Marine and Aviation most affected. For each of our segments we have sensitised volumes, gross cash unit margins, profits and cash flows, taking into account a similar but less extreme impact of COVID-19 for the next two years, than experienced in 2020. The impact over the next two years is not considered to be as severe as initially experienced in 2020 reflecting the reduced impact of second wave restrictions during the first few weeks of 2021. In our sensitivities, available mitigating measures, such as reducing uncommitted growth capex, dividend deferrals and other discretionary spend, do not prevent the Group from operating. The Group does not expect any significant structural changes to the business will be necessary under any of the scenarios considered. Based on management's assessment for the next two years, sufficient available liquidity exists and the Group has adequate resources to meet its operational obligations.

As of 31 December 2020, the Company has available short-term capital resources of $2,078m, which include $1,323m of uncommitted facilities. The Group is not reliant on these uncommitted facilities. Based on the cash flow projections for the next two years, management has confirmed that there is sufficient cash and committed facilities available. Notwithstanding this analysis, the Group has continued to have access to and utilise the uncommitted short-term funding lines throughout the year, and where necessary renew them in the normal course of business. Therefore, the Directors expect these uncommitted facilities to continue to be available to the Group for the foreseeable future. Under both the base case and severe but plausible downside scenarios, the financial covenants, relating to the Group's RCF, of minimum interest cover of 4x and maximum debt cover of 3x are forecast to be met over the next two years. At the time of approving the consolidated financial statements, the Directors maintain a reasonable expectation that the Company and the Group will have adequate resources to continue in operational existence for the foreseeable future and have therefore prepared the financial statements on a going concern basis.

In preparing the consolidated financial statements the Group has considered the impact that climate change may have on key accounting judgements and estimates including asset useful economic lives and asset valuations and impairments. At the year-end, whilst a number of countries in which the Group operates are signatories to the Paris Climate Agreement, none of the countries have introduced legislation or detailed policy initiatives associated with transitioning away from carbon based transportation fuels. Whilst the Group continues to introduce initiatives designed to reduce the carbon emissions from its direct operations and develop alternative product offerings, the Group considers that the transition towards a low carbon economy in its primary markets will be over a longer time period than will be seen in the UK and the European Union. As a result, the Group considers that the market for oil products across Africa will continue to grow within its medium-term planning horizons and this assumption is embedded within the Group's five-year strategic business plan which in turn supports a number of key forward-looking accounting judgements and estimates.

The Group's principal accounting policies are unchanged from those set out in the 2019 Annual Report and Accounts, which is available on the Company's website.

3. Financial risk management

3.1 Financial instruments by category

The table below sets out the Group's classification of each class of financial assets and financial liabilities and their fair values for the current year and the comparative year:

 

31 December 2020

US$ million

Measured at amortised cost

Measured at

FVTOCI

Total

carrying value

Fair value

Financial assets

 

 

 

 

Trade receivables1

 344

-

 344

 344

Cash and cash equivalents

 515

-

 515

 515

Financial assets at FVTOCI

-

12

 12

 12

Other assets2

 127

-

 127

 127

Total

 986

 12

 998

 998

1  Trade receivables include credit secured receivables of $180m.

2  Other assets (note 16) exclude the following elements that do not qualify as financial instruments: prepayments, VAT and duties receivable and other government benefits receivable.

 

 

31 December 2020

US$ million

Measured at amortised cost

Measured at FVTPL

Total
carrying value

Fair value

Financial liabilities

 

 

 

 

Trade payables

1,048

-

 1,048

 1,048

Borrowings

682

-

 682

 707

Other liabilities1

215

-

 215

 215

Lease liabilities

143

-

 143

 143

Other financial liabilities

-

 9

 9

 9

Total

2,088

9

 2,097

 2,122

1  Other liabilities (note 26) exclude the elements that do not qualify as financial instruments.

 

 

 

 

31 December 2019

US$ million

Measured at amortised cost

Measured at

FVTOCI

Total
carrying value

Fair value

Financial assets

 

 

 

 

Trade receivables1

451

-

451

451

Cash and cash equivalents

517

-

517

517

Financial assets at FVTOCI

-

9

9

9

Other assets2

115

-

115

115

Total

1,083

9

1,092

1,092

      

1  Trade receivables include credit secured receivables of $206m.

2  Other assets (note 16) exclude the following elements that do not qualify as financial instruments: prepayments, VAT and duties receivable and other government benefits receivable.

 

 

 

 

 

31 December 2019

US$ million

Measured at amortised cost

Measured

at FVTPL

Total
carrying value

Fair value

Financial liabilities

 

 

 

 

Trade payables

1,257

-

1,257

1,257

Borrowings

600

-

600

600

Other liabilities1

225

-

225

225

Lease liabilities

125

-

125

125

Other financial liabilities

-

3

3

3

Total

2,207

3

2,210

2,210

1 Other liabilities (note 26) exclude the elements that do not qualify as financial instruments.

 

3.2 Financial risk factors

The Group's activities expose it to a variety of financial risks: market risk (including currency risk, price risk, cash flow interest rate risk and fair value interest rate risk), credit risk and liquidity risk. The Group's overall risk management programme focuses on the unpredictability of financial markets and seeks to minimise potential adverse effects on the Group's financial performance.

Market risk

Foreign exchange risk

The Group operates internationally and is exposed to foreign exchange risk arising from various currency exposures, primarily with respect to the US dollar. Foreign exchange risk arises from future commercial transactions and recognised assets and liabilities.

Management has set up a policy to require Group companies to manage their foreign exchange risk. Group treasury is required to approve all hedging plans before execution. The Group has a number of natural hedges in place, where the timing of foreign currency payments is matched with the receipts in a similar currency. Forward contracts are used to manage the foreign exchange risk arising from future obligations.

Foreign currency exposure on the consolidated net monetary position is $156m (2019: $378m). Other monetary balances in other currencies are not material. If the non-US dollar held currency had weakened/strengthened by 10% against the US dollar with all other variables held constant, pre-tax profit for the year would have been $16m (2019: $38m) higher/lower, mainly as a result of foreign exchange gains/losses on translation of non-US dollar denominated receivables and payables.

Price risk

The Group generally seeks to manage its exposure to commodity price risk through careful inventory management and as at 31 December 2020 the Group was not significantly exposed to commodity price risk. In regulated markets, the Group has no price exposure as long as the sale of the inventory is matching the timing of the price structures updates, however in unregulated markets, such as Marine and Aviation, the Group may be exposed to price changes in the short-term if inventory is not carefully managed.

In Botswana, Guinea, Madagascar, Senegal and Morocco (for Butane only) the Group is financially compensated by the local government for the effect of these price restrictions. For further information see note 16. For some countries (such as Senegal) the transport costs are subsidised.

The Group does not hold equity securities for trading and is, therefore, not exposed to price risk.

Cash flow interest rate risk and fair value interest rate risk

The Group's interest rate risk arises from borrowings. It is Group policy to have short-term loan facilities at floating rate and medium to longterm facilities at floating or fixed rate. The Group has short-term overdraft facilities which carry a fixed interest rate exposing the Group to fair value interest rate risk. However, given that the rate is fixed for a short period of time, and that these facilities terms are subject to renegotiation, should interest rate move, the exposure is minimal. Long-term borrowings consist of notes at fixed interest rate, which exposes the Group to fair value interest rate risk (refer note 23).

Credit risk

Credit risk is managed on a Group basis, except for credit risk relating to accounts receivable balances. Each local entity is responsible for managing and analysing the credit risk for each of their new clients before standard payment and delivery terms and conditions are offered. Credit risk arises from cash and cash equivalents, as well as credit exposures to wholesale and retail customers, including outstanding receivables and committed transactions. At reporting date, the Group noted no significant concentrations of credit risk to individual customers or counterparties. The maximum exposure to credit risk at the reporting date is the carrying value of each class of receivables.

All external customers must have their identity checked and credit worthiness assessed and approved prior to the signing of a binding agreement or contract. Credit worthiness is assessed for all customers based on commercial data, but also considers financial data when a credit limit exceeds $15,000 for Retail and $100,000 for Commercial. The utilisation of credit limits is regularly monitored and checks performed on outstanding debt at regular intervals. Where the environment allows, security (bank guarantees) will be taken to secure the Group's exposure. For banks and financial institutions, management of the operating entity are responsible for making the short-term placements with the banks after approval from Group Treasury.

The investment policy is based in order of importance on security, liquidity and yield. Management will assess the counterparty risks of the third-party based on financial strength, quality of management, ownership structure, regulatory environment and overall diversification. Group Treasury is required to approve all investment decisions to ensure they are made in line with the Group's credit policies. The Group has provided secured loans to individual employees (note 16).

In Morocco customer receivables to the amount of $16m (2019: $19m) were assigned to a factoring subsidiary of a commercial bank, the assigned amount was received in cash and the corresponding receivable was derecognised. For the late payment risk, the Group capped the exposure to six months' maximum of interest. This resulted in a continuous involvement accounting treatment where a substantial portion of the risk has been transferred. A continuous involvement liability of $0.3m (2019: $0.4m) was recognised. In addition, other government benefits receivable to the amount of $36m (2019: $9m) were assigned to a local commercial bank, the assigned amount was received in cash and the corresponding receivable was derecognised. For the late payment risk, the Group capped the exposure to 5.5 months' maximum of interest. A continuous involvement liability of $0.6m was recognised. The Group considers that the held to collect business model remains appropriate for these receivables and hence continues measuring them at amortised cost. The Group has arrived at this conclusion because the factoring of the Group's B2B receivables before maturing is done on an infrequent basis. Furthermore, the Group continues to guarantee the late payment risk up to 180 days. The business model is, therefore, not impacted because the risks and rewards as existing prior to the factoring remain after the factoring.

The Group's cash and cash equivalent balances are primarily held at banks with strong credit ratings where the exposure to credit risk is considered to be limited. The extent to which the Group's cash and cash equivalent balances, are held at banks, where there is considered to be an exposure to credit risk is set out below:

 

31 December 2020

 

31 December 2019

 

Credit rating

US$ million

 

Credit rating

US$ million

Banks

 

 

 

 

 

Bank 1

A+

 74

 

AAAmmf

56

Bank 2

Ba1

 67

 

A+

49

Bank 3

Ba2

 45

 

Ba1-

42

 

Liquidity risk

Prudent liquidity risk management implies maintaining sufficient cash and the availability of funding through an adequate amount of committed credit facilities. Due to the cyclical nature of the underlying businesses, the Directors aim to maintain flexibility in funding by keeping committed credit lines available.

Management monitors rolling forecasts of the Group's liquidity reserve on the basis of expected cash flow. This is generally carried out at local level in the operating companies of the Group in accordance with practice and limits set by Group policies. Where short-term liquidity is needed, the operating entities organise short-term facilities to cover the deficit which have to be authorised by Group Treasury.

The table below analyses the Group's financial liabilities into relevant maturity groupings based on the remaining period at the reporting date to the contractual maturity date. The amounts disclosed in the table are the contractual undiscounted cash flows.

 

31 December 2020

US$ million

Less than
3 months

Between
3 months
and 1 year

Between 1
and 2 years

Between 2
and 5 years

Over

 5 years

Total

Borrowings1

266

2

6

60

350

684

Trade payables

1,040

8

-

-

-

1,048

Lease liabilities

7

28

29

59

94

217

Other liabilities2

13

22

17

2

161

215

Total

1,326

60

52

121

605

2,164

1  Borrowings exclude, as of 31 December 2020 the undrawn multi-currency revolving credit facility of $240m (note 23).

2  Other liabilities (note 26) exclude the elements that do not qualify as financial instruments.

 

 

 

 

31 December 2019

US$ million

Less than
3 months

Between
3 months
and 1 year

Between 1
and 2 years

Between 2
and 5 years

Over

 5 years

Total

Borrowings1

225

81

85

211

-

602

Trade payables

1,161

89

7

-

-

1,257

Lease liabilities

6

17

20

44

90

177

Other liabilities2

49

24

18

4

130

225

Total

1,441

211

130

259

220

2,261

1  Borrowings exclude, as of 31 December 2019, the undrawn multi-currency revolving credit facility of $236m (note 23).

2  Other liabilities (note 26) exclude the elements that do not qualify as financial instruments.

Net investment hedge

Foreign currency exposure arises from the Group's net investment in its several subsidiaries that have the Cape Verde Escudo (CVE) and the CFA Franc BCEAO (XOF) as functional currencies that are 100% pegged to the Euro (EUR). Therefore, the risk arises from fluctuation in spot exchange rates between these currencies (or the EUR) and the US dollar, which causes the amount of the net investment to vary.

The hedged risk in the net investment hedge is the risk of a variation the CVE and the XOF currencies (or the EUR) against the US dollar which will result in a variation in the carrying amount of the Group's net investment in these foreign operations.

On 24 September 2020, the Group issued $350m notes (refer note 23). In order to eliminate foreign exchange risk associated with the translation of the EUR pegged part of its net investment into its functional currency, the Group entered into a fixed-fixed cross-currency swap to exchange a portion of the US dollar denominated bonds to EUR. The cross-currency swap is applied for $150m of the bonds, maturing in three years.

In 2019 part of the Group's net investment in those subsidiaries was hedged by a EUR denominated secured bank loan with carrying amount $150m, which mitigated the foreign currency risk arising from the revaluation of the subsidiaries' net assets. The loan was designated as a hedging instrument for the changes in the value of the net investment that is attributable to changes in the spot rate.

To assess hedge effectiveness, the Group determines the economic relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item by comparing changes in the carrying amount of the swap that is attributable to a change in the spot rate with changes in the investment in the foreign operation due to movements in the spot rate (the offset method).

The amounts related to items designated as hedging instruments in the statement of financial position and the statement of comprehensive income were as follows:

 

31 December 2020

US$ million

Nominal amount

Carrying amount

Line item in the
statement of financial
position where the hedging
instrument is included

Assets

Liabilities

Cross currency swap

150

-

150

Borrowings

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change in value
used for calculating
hedge for 2020

Change in value
of hedging instrument recognised in OCI

Hedge ineffectiveness recognised in
profit or loss

Line item in profit
or loss that includes
hedge ineffectiveness

Cross currency swap

(7)

(7)

-

Not applicable

 

 

 

 

 

31 December 2019

US$ million

Nominal amount

Carrying amount

Line item in the
statement of financial
position where the hedging
instrument is included

Assets

Liabilities

Foreign exchange denominated debt

239

-

150

Borrowings

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change in value
used for calculating
hedge for 2019

Change in value
of hedging instrument recognised in OCI

Hedge ineffectiveness recognised in
profit or loss

Line item in profit
or loss that includes
hedge ineffectiveness

Foreign exchange denominated debt

(3)

(3)

-

Not applicable

3.3 Capital management

The Group's capital management objective is to maintain a commercially sound consolidated statements of financial position with the aim of maximising the net cash return to the shareholders, while maintaining a level of capitalisation that is commercially defensible and which leads to an effective and optimised working capital structure.

Liquidity and capital resources are monitored through a review of the Group's net debt position, leverage ratio and available short-term capital resources. Net debt is calculated as total borrowings and lease liabilities (including current and non-current borrowings and lease liabilities as shown in the consolidated statements of financial position) less cash and cash equivalents. The leverage ratio is calculated as net debt divided by adjusted EBITDA. For details related to key covenants refer to note 23.

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Long-term debt (note 23)

408

371

Lease liabilities (note 27)

143

125

Total debt excluding short-term bank borrowings

551

496

Short-term bank borrowings1

274

229

Less: cash and cash equivalents (note 19)

(515)

(517)

Net debt

310

208

1  Short-term bank borrowings exclude the current portion of long-term debt.

 

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Net debt

310

208

Adjusted EBITDA1

360

431

Leverage ratio

0.86x

0.48x

1  For the description and reconciliation of non-GAAP measures refer to Non-GAAP financial measures.

 

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Cash and cash equivalents

515

517

Available undrawn credit facilities

1,563

1,410

Available short-term capital resources

2,078

1,927

The Group manages its capital structure and makes adjustments to it in light of changes in economic conditions in order to ensure sound capital management.

 

4. Critical accounting estimates and judgements

4.1 Accounting judgements

In the process of applying the Group's accounting policies, management has made the following judgements, apart from those involving estimates, which have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the consolidated financial statements:

Accounting for leases under IFRS 16

In establishing the lease term for each lease contract that has an option to extend, judgement has been applied to determine the extension period. When it is concluded that it is reasonably certain that the extension option will be utilised, the lease term is extended to include the reasonably certain period of five years. The lease agreements have the option to extend the leases and the option to terminate the leases. The extension options in different contracts vary between five years to unlimited period. The Group uses significant assumptions that all of the existing leases that are expiring within the following five years, and have an extension option, will be extended for an additional five-year period, when determining the lease term.

In addition, IFRS 16 requires lease payments to be discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease. In case the interest rate implicit in the lease cannot be readily determined, the incremental borrowing rate should be used. That is the rate of interest that a lessee would have to pay to borrow over a similar value to the right-of-use asset in a similar economic environment. Accordingly, the Group elected to use the local borrowing rates for each operating unit at the commencement date. That is the rate at which local operating units would need to borrow to acquire the asset. For additional details relating to leases refer to note 27.

4.2 Estimation uncertainty

The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are discussed below.

Goodwill impairment assessment

The Group annually tests whether goodwill has suffered any impairment. The recoverable amount of each cash generating unit (CGU) was determined based on a Fair Value Less Cost of Disposal calculation which was based upon cash flow projections from the five-year business plan prepared for each CGU. The terminal value was estimated based upon a perpetuity growth rate of 1.6%, reflecting an inflationary level of growth beyond the five-year plan. Post-tax discount rate of 12.2% was used to discount the projected cash flows.

Based on the impairment test carried out, goodwill is not considered to be impaired. No impairment would occur, if the post-tax discount rate applied to the cash flow projection of each CGU had been 1% higher than management estimates and all other assumptions remain unchanged. The Retail fuel and Commercial fuel segments would only result in an indication of impairment if the post-tax discount rates increased to 19.4% and 18.2% respectively.

Government related assets and liabilities

The Group has various assets from and liabilities to governments and authorities with respect to government benefits receivable as well as for taxes and duties. The Group constantly assesses underlying inherent risks and assumptions and as a consequence related accounting estimates are determined and adjustments are made to the carrying amounts of those assets and liabilities, where necessary. A key element in the assessment of uncertainty of recoverability of government benefit receivables is the credit risk associated with these governments, this is considered in note 16.

Tax positions

The Group operates across many tax jurisdictions and the interpretation and application of tax law can be complex and requires judgement to assess the risk and estimate the potential outcomes. These outcomes can vary significantly from what has been provided. The Group recognises many individually immaterial provisions with a cumulative amount totalling $23m related to income tax and $37m related to indirect and other tax matters recorded in other assets, other liabilities and provisions. These are recorded for the amount that is expected to be settled where this can be reasonably estimated. This reflects management's assessment of the expected value of such risks based on a multiple scenario outcome and likelihood. Factors considered include the status of recent current tax audits and enquiries; the results of previous claims; the transfer pricing policies of the Group and any changes to the relevant tax environments. The timing of the resolution of the risks is uncertain and may take many years, however is expected to be within the next five years.

 

 

5. SEGMENT REPORTING

The Group operates under three reportable segments: Retail, Commercial and Lubricants.

Retail segment - Retail fuel is aggregated with Non-fuel retail. Both the operating segments derive revenue from retail customers who visit our retail sites. Retail fuel and Non-fuel revenues are aggregated as the segments are managed as one unit and have similar customers. The economic indicators that have been addressed in determining that the aggregated segments have similar economic characteristics are that they have similar expected future financial performance and similar operating and competitive risks.

Commercial segment - Commercial fuel, LPG, Aviation and Marine are aggregated in the Commercial segment as the operating segments derive revenues from commercial customers. The segments have similar economic characteristics. The economic indicators that have been addressed are the long-term growth and average long-term gross margin percentage.

Lubricants segment - Retail, B2C, B2B and Export Lubricants are the remaining operating segments. Since these operating segments meet the majority of aggregation criteria, they are aggregated in the Lubricants segment.

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision-makers. The Directors monitor the operating results of business units separately for the purpose of making decisions about resource allocation, segment performance assessment and interacting with segment managers.

The following tables present revenues and profit information regarding the Group's operating segments:

 

2020

US$ million

Retail

Commercial

Lubricants

Consolidated

Revenue from external customers

4,436

2,116

366

6,918

Gross profit

387

156

74

617

Add back: depreciation and amortisation

51

25

4

80

Gross cash profit

438

181

78

697

Adjusted EBITDA1

216

92

52

360

1  Refer to note 6 for the reconciliation to EBIT.

 

2019

US$ million

Retail

Commercial

Lubricants

Consolidated

Revenue from external customers

5,249

2,678

375

8,302

Gross profit

411

192

72

675

Add back: depreciation and amortisation

43

22

3

68

Gross cash profit

454

214

75

743

Adjusted EBITDA1

242

135

54

431

1  Refer to note 6 for the reconciliation to EBIT.

US$ million

2020

2019

Share of profit of joint ventures and associates included in segment EBITDA

 

 

Lubricants

8

 12

Retail

4

 5

Commercial

4

 5

Total

16

 22

The amount of revenues from external customers by location of the customers is shown in the table below.

US$ million

2020

2019

Revenue from external customers by principle country

 

 

Kenya

 1,181

 1,256

Morocco

 1,075

 1,476

Côte d'Ivoire

 546

 604

Other

 4,116

 4,966

Total

 6,918

 8,302

 

 

 

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Non-current assets by principle country (excluding deferred tax)

 

 

Morocco

 245

 208

The Netherlands

 232

 232

Kenya

 153

 143

Other

 1,042

 988

Total

 1,672

 1,571

 

6. Reconciliation of Non-GAAP measures

Non-GAAP measures are not defined by International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and, therefore, may not be directly comparable with other companies' non-GAAP measures, including those in the Group's industry. Non-GAAP measures should be considered in addition to, and are not intended to be a substitute for, or superior to, IFRS measurements. The exclusion of certain items (special items) from non-GAAP performance measures does not imply that these items are necessarily non-recurring. From time to time, we may exclude additional items if we believe doing so would result in a more transparent and comparable disclosure.

The Directors believe that reporting non-GAAP financial measures in addition to IFRS measures, as well as the exclusion of special items, provides users with enhanced understanding of results and related trends and increases the transparency and clarity of the core results of operations. Non-GAAP measures are used by the Directors and management for performance analysis, planning, reporting and are used in determining senior management remuneration.

US$ million

2020

2019

EBT

175

246

Finance expense - net

60

64

EBIT

235

310

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

125

106

EBITDA

360

416

Adjustments to EBITDA related to special items:

 

 

Hyperinflation1

2

-

IPO2 and Engen acquisition related expenses3

1

11

Write-off of non-current asset4

-

3

Restructuring5

-

3

Management Equity Plan6

(3)

(2)

Adjusted EBITDA

360

431

1  The impacts of accounting for hyperinflation for Vivo Energy Zimbabwe, in accordance with IAS 29, are treated as special items since they are not considered to represent the underlying operational performance of the Group and based on their significance in size and unusual nature are excluded as the local currency depreciation against the US dollar does not align to the published inflation rates during the period.

2  IPO related items in 2020 and 2019 concern the IPO share awards which are accrued for over the vesting period.

3  On 1 March 2019 Vivo Energy Investments B.V., a subsidiary of the Group, acquired 100% of the issued shares in Vivo Energy Overseas Holdings Limited (VEOHL) (formerly known as Engen International Holdings (Mauritius) Limited). The cost of the acquisition and related integration project expenses are treated as special items.

4  The Group recognised a write-off in 2019 related to a government benefits receivable as a result of a retrospective price structure change by the government to finance their outstanding debt. Such retrospective changes of existing price structures are considered non-recurring and are not representative of the core operational business activities and performance and are, therefore, treated as special items.

5  Restructuring costs were incurred in 2019 mainly as a result of the integration of VEOHL into our business model. The impact from these activities do not form part of the core operational business activities and performance and were, therefore, treated as a special item in 2019.

6  The Management Equity Plan vested at IPO in May 2018 and is exercisable on the first anniversary of admission for a period of 24 months. Changes in the fair value of the cash-settled share-based plan do not form part of the core operational business activities and performance and should, therefore, be treated as a special item. The costs of share-based payment schemes introduced after the IPO are not treated as special items.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US$ million

2020

2019

Net income

90

150

Adjustments to net income related to special items:

 

 

Hyperinflation1

2

-

IPO2 and Engen acquisition related expenses3

1

11

Write-off of non-current asset4

-

3

Restructuring5

-

3

Management Equity Plan6

(3)

(2)

Tax on special items

-

(3)

Adjusted net income

90

162

 

US$ million

2020

2019

Diluted EPS

0.06

0.11

Impact of special items

-

0.01

Adjusted diluted EPS

0.06

0.12

1  The impacts of accounting for hyperinflation for Vivo Energy Zimbabwe, in accordance with IAS 29, are treated as special items since they are not considered to represent the underlying operational performance of the Group and based on their significance in size and unusual nature are excluded as the local currency depreciation against the US dollar does not align to the published inflation rates during the period.

2  IPO related items in 2020 and 2019 concern the IPO share awards which are accrued for over the vesting period.

3  On 1 March 2019 Vivo Energy Investments B.V., a subsidiary of the Group, acquired 100% of the issued shares in Vivo Energy Overseas Holdings Limited (VEOHL) (formerly known as Engen International Holdings (Mauritius) Limited). The cost of the acquisition and related integration project expenses are treated as special items.

4  The Group recognised a write-off in 2019 related to a government benefits receivable as a result of a retrospective price structure change by the government to finance their outstanding debt. Such retrospective changes of existing price structures are considered non-recurring and are not representative of the core operational business activities and performance and are, therefore, treated as special items.

5  Restructuring costs were incurred in 2019 mainly as a result of the integration of VEOHL into our business model. The impact from these activities do not form part of the core operational business activities and performance and were, therefore, treated as a special item in 2019.

6  The Management Equity Plan vested at IPO in May 2018 and is exercisable on the first anniversary of admission for a period of 24 months. Changes in the fair value of the cash-settled share-based plan do not form part of the core operational business activities and performance and should, therefore, be treated as a special item. The costs of share-based payment schemes introduced after the IPO are not treated as special items.

 

The Group defines Headline earnings as earnings based on net income attributable to owners of the Group, before items of a capital nature, net of income tax as required for companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange.

US$ million, unless otherwise indicated

2020

2019

Headline earnings per share

 

 

Net income attributable to owners

80

136

Re-measurements:

 

 

Net gain on disposal of PP&E and intangible assets

(4)

-

Write-off of non-current asset1

-

3

Income tax on re-measurements

1

(1)

Headline earnings

77

138

Weighted average number of ordinary shares (million)

 1,266

1,255

Headline EPS (US$)

 0.06

 0.11

Diluted number of shares (million)

 1,266

1,255

Diluted headline EPS (US$)

 0.06

0.11

Effective tax rate

49%

39%

1  The Group recognised a write-off in 2019 related to a government benefits receivable as a result of a retrospective price structure change by the government to finance their outstanding debt. Such retrospective changes of existing price structures resulted in the re-measurement of an asset and is therefore excluded.

 

 

7. General and administrative cost

Employee benefits

US$ million

2020

2019

Wages, salaries and other employee benefits

 163

159

Restructuring, severance and other involuntary termination costs1

7

3

Retirement benefits

10

7

Share-based payment expense

-

(1)

 

180

168

1  Total restructuring costs amount to $7m (2019: $3m) of which some elements are reflected in other employee benefits categories.

Included in the employee benefit expense for the year ended 31 December 2020, was social security expense of $1m (2019: $1m) and other pension costs relating to employees employed in the UK.

Employee benefits have been charged in:

US$ million

2020

2019

General and administrative cost

 102

96

Selling and marketing cost

 43

39

Cost of sales

 35

33

 

 180

168

The monthly average number of full-time equivalent employees were as follows:

 

2020

2019

Sales and distribution

 1,904

 1,845

Administration and support

 794

 755

 

 2,698

 2,600

Depreciation and amortisation

Depreciation of property, plant and equipment, right-of-use assets and amortisation of intangible assets are separately disclosed in note 11, 12 and 27 respectively.

Audit fees

US $'000

2020

2019

Parent company and consolidated financial statements

 1,248

 1,656

Subsidiaries1

 1,175

 1,383

Audit fees2

 2,423

 3,039

Audit-related fees3

 377

 692

Tax advisory fees

-

5

Other assurance services4

227

193

Other non-audit services

-

11

Other fees total

 604

 901

Total fees

 3,027

 3,940

1  Audit fees for foreign entities are expressed at the average exchange rate for the year.

2  Audit fees in 2019 comprise fees for the business combination in relation to the VEOHL acquisition and the SAP S/4HANA implementation.

3  Audit-related fees relate to interim financial statements reviews.

4  Other assurance services relate mainly to comfort letter procedures in respect to note issuance and volume certificates to support brand royalty expenses.

 

 

8. Other income/(expense)

US$ million

2020

2019

Net gain on disposals of PP&E and intangible assets

4

-

Gain on financial instruments

-

 1

Other income

-

 1

 

4

 2

9. Finance income and expense

US$ million

2020

2019

Finance expense

 

 

Interest on bank and other borrowings and on lease liabilities1

(39)

(35)

Interest on long-term debt including amortisation of set-up fees

(25)

(24)

Net impact of hyperinflation2

(3)

(5)

Accretion expense net defined benefit liability

(2)

(2)

Foreign exchange loss

-

(1)

Other

(3)

(4)

 

(72)

(71)

Finance income

 

 

Interest from cash and cash equivalents

8

7

Foreign exchange gain

4

-

 

12

7

Finance expense - net

(60)

(64)

1  Includes an amount of $12m (2019: $11m) finance expense for leases in respect to IFRS 16 'Leases'.

2  Represents the net monetary loss impact from the application of IAS 29 'Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies'.

10. Income taxes

Current income taxes

Analysis of income tax expense:

US$ million

2020

2019

Current tax

 

 

Current income tax

 (96)

 (95)

Current income tax prior years

8

 (2)

 

 (88)

 (97)

Deferred tax

 

 

Deferred income tax

6

 1

Deferred income tax prior years

(3)

-

 

3

 1

Income tax expense

(85)

 (96)

 

 

 

The reconciliation of income taxes, computed at the statutory tax rate, to income tax expense was as follows:

US$ million

2020

2019

EBT

 175

 246

Statutory tax rate

19%

19%

Income tax expense at statutory tax rate

 (33)

 (47)

Increase/(decrease) resulting from:

 

 

Impact of tax rates in foreign jurisdictions

 (18)

 (23)

Income not subject to tax

 6

 7

Expenses not tax deductible

 (11)

 (11)

Non-recognition of tax benefits in relation to current period tax losses or temporary differences

 (10)

 (5)

Recognition and utilisation of previously unrecognised tax losses or temporary differences1

 3

 6

Withholding tax

 (19)

 (19)

Other2

 (3)

 (4)

Income tax expense

 (85)

 (96)

Effective tax rate

49%

39%

1  In 2019, $1m was recognised after the business acquisition and was supported by developments in the acquired markets.

2  Amongst others, includes movements related to uncertain tax positions.

Deferred income taxes

The significant components of the Company's recognised deferred income tax assets and liabilities were as follows:

 

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

US$ million

Asset

Liability

Asset

Liability

Property, plant and equipment

1

 (43)

 1

 (31)

Intangible assets

-

 (22)

-

 (23)

Retirement benefits

10

 (1)

 9

 (1)

Provisions

17

-

 17

 (2)

Withholding taxes

-

(16)

-

 (15)

Tax losses carried forward1

13

-

 12

-

Other

33

(18)

 17

 (16)

 

74

 (100)

 56

 (88)

Offsetting of balances

(28)

 28

 (22)

22

Total

46

 (72)

 34

 (66)

1  $4m of the recognised deferred tax asset for tax losses carried forward, is supported by expected future taxable profits (2019: $8m).

The changes in the net deferred income tax assets and liabilities were as follows:

US$ million

2020

2019

Balance at the beginning of year, net

 (32)

 (15)

In profit

 3

1

In other comprehensive income

 1

 (1)

Business acquisition

-

 (19)

Other

-

 1

Foreign exchange differences

 2

 1

 

 (26)

 (32)

 

Unrecognised deferred tax assets relate to carry forward losses of $98m (2019: $93m) and tax credit carry forwards of $12m (2019: $4m). Of the unrecognised carry forward losses $1m will expire at the end of 2023, $7m at the end of 2024, $15m at the end of 2025 and $75m at the end of 2026 or later.

The unrecognised taxable temporary differences associated with undistributed retained earnings of investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates amounts to $25m (2019: $20m).

11. Property, plant and equipment

 

 

 

 

 

2020

 

US$ million

Land

Buildings

Machinery and other equipment

Construction in progress

Total

Cost at 1 January 2020

 55

 319

 552

 92

1,018

Additions

 2

 16

 25

 109

 152

Disposals

(5)

(4)

(17)

(9)

(35)

Transfers

-

 7

 69

(76)

-

Foreign exchange differences1

-

 1

 13

-

 14

Cost at 31 December 2020

 52

 339

 642

 116

 1,149

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated depreciation at 1 January 2020

-

(54)

(141)

-

(195)

Depreciation

-

(17)

(65)

-

(82)

Disposals

-

3

17

-

 20

Foreign exchange differences1

-

-

(3)

-

(3)

Accumulated depreciation at 31 December 2020

-

(68)

(192)

-

(260)

Net carrying value at 31 December 2020

 52

 271

 449

 117

 889

            

1  Foreign exchange differences include the impact from the application of IAS 29 'Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies'.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2019

 

US$ million

Land

Buildings

Machinery and other equipment

Construction in progress

Total

Cost at 1 January 2019

 33

 229

 453

 68

 783

Additions

-

 6

 25

 93

 124

Business acquisition1

 22

 71

 61

 9

 163

Disposals

-

(4)

(29)

-

(33)

Transfers

1

 24

 53

(78)

-

Foreign exchange differences2

(1)

(7)

(11)

-

(19)

Cost at 31 December 2019

 55

 319

 552

 92

1,018

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated depreciation at 1 January 2019

-

(43)

(118)

-

(161)

Depreciation

-

(16)

(56)

-

(72)

Disposals

-

 3

 28

-

31

Foreign exchange differences2

-

 2

 5

-

7

Accumulated depreciation at 31 December 2019

-

(54)

(141)

-

(195)

Net carrying value at 31 December 2019

 55

 265

 411

 92

 823

            

1  Includes PP&E recognised on acquisition of VEOHL of $149m.

2  Foreign exchange differences include the impact from the application of IAS 29 'Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies'.

No assets have been pledged as security. Depreciation charge of $82m (2019: $72m) is included in cost of sales for $73m (2019: $64m), in selling and marketing cost for $1m (2019: $1m) and in general and administrative cost for $8m (2019: $7m).

 

12. Intangible assets

 

 

 

 

 

2020

US$ million

Shell licence agreement

Goodwill

Computer software

Other

Total

Cost at 1 January 2020

 139

 81

 75

 57

 352

Additions

-

-

16

-

 16

Foreign exchange differences1

-

 (2)

-

-

(2)

Cost at 31 December 2020

 139

 79

 91

 57

 366

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated amortisation at 1 January 2020

 (82)

-

 (19)

 (25)

 (126)

Amortisation

 (5)

-

 (9)

 (4)

 (18)

Accumulated amortisation at 31 December 2020

 (87)

-

 (28)

 (29)

 (144)

Net carrying value at 31 December 2020

 52

 79

 63

 28

 222

           

1  Foreign exchange differences include the impact from the application of IAS 29 'Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies'.

 

 

 

 

 

2019

US$ million

Shell licence agreement

Goodwill

Computer software

Other

Total

Cost at 1 January 2019

 143

 21

 51

 32

 247

Additions

-

-

 25

-

 25

Business acquisition

-

 65

-

 25

 90

Foreign exchange differences1

 (4)

 (5)

 (1)

-

 (10)

Cost at 31 December 2019

 139

 81

 75

 57

 352

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated amortisation at 1 January 2019

 (77)

-

 (16)

 (20)

 (113)

Amortisation

 (5)

-

 (3)

 (5)

 (13)

Accumulated amortisation at 31 December 2019

 (82)

-

 (19)

 (25)

 (126)

Net carrying value at 31 December 2019

 57

 81

 56

 32

 226

           

1  Foreign exchange differences include the impact from the application of IAS 29 'Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies'.

Amortisation charge of $18m (2019: $13m) is included in cost of sales for $3m (2019: $1m), selling and marketing cost for $12m (2019: $9m) and general and administrative cost for $3m (2019: $3m).

Impairment test for goodwill

The Group tests whether goodwill has suffered any impairment on an annual basis. The recoverable amount of the CGUs was determined based on Fair Value Less Cost of Disposal calculation which requires the use of assumptions. The calculations use cash flow projections based on an approved business plan covering a five-year period. Cash flows beyond the five-year period are extrapolated using the estimated long-term growth rate shown below. The terminal value was calculated using the Gordon Growth formula.

Goodwill is monitored at the operating segment level on a non-aggregated basis. The Group has several non-aggregated operating segments, however, the goodwill is allocated to Retail fuel and Commercial fuel given that substantially all activities of the acquired businesses relate to these two operating segments. Both the goodwill acquired in the 2019 Engen acquisition and the goodwill acquired from previous acquisitions are allocated and considered for impairment testing together at the non-aggregated operating segments Retail fuel and Commercial fuel. For this purpose, a discounted cash flow analysis was used to compute the recoverable amount using the approved plan. This results in 81% of the carrying amount of goodwill being allocated to Retail fuel and 19% of the carrying amount being allocated to Commercial fuel.

 

 

 

 

The following tables sets out the key assumptions for those CGUs that have a significant goodwill allocated to them:

 

 

2020

 

Retail

 fuel

Commercial

fuel

Volume compounded annual growth rate

6.2%

4.8%

Gross cash profit compounded annual growth rate

5.8%

5.3%

Post-tax discount rate

12.2%

12.2%

Long-term growth rate

1.6%

1.6%

The methodology applied to each of the key assumptions used is as follows:

Assumptions

Approach used to determine values

Volume growth

Volume growth over the five-year forecast period; based on past performance and management expectations of market developments.

Gross cash profit growth

Based on past performance and management expectations of the future.

Post-tax discount rate

Based on specific risks relating to the industry and country. Factors considered for the industry include regulatory environment, market competition, and barriers to entry.

Long-term growth rate

Based on the IMF GDP projections for the markets where Vivo Energy operates. Sensitivity analysis was performed for changes in long-term growth rate by -1.5% and +2.0%.

The Group considers the post-tax discount rate to be the most sensitive assumption. No impairment would occur, if the post-tax discount rate applied to the cash flow projection of each CGU had been 1% higher than management estimates and all other assumptions in the table above are unchanged. Goodwill in relation to the Retail fuel and Commercial fuel CGU's would only result in an indication of impairment if the post-tax discount rates increased to 19.4% and 18.2%, respectively. There are no reasonable possible changes that could occur to key assumptions that would reduce the recoverable amount below the carrying amount.

 

13. Investments in joint ventures and associates

The Group also has interests in a number of associates and joint ventures that are accounted for using the equity method. A comprehensive listing of the Group's joint ventures and associates can be found in note 15 of the Company financial statements.

US$ million

2020

2019

At 1 January

 227

 223

Acquisition of businesses

 14

 5

Share of profit

 16

 22

Dividend received

(24)

(22)

Foreign exchange differences

(2)

(1)

At 31 December

 231

 227

In December 2017, the Group acquired a 50% interest in Shell and Vivo Lubricants B.V. (SVL) that is considered a material investment to the Group. SVL is the principal supplier of manufacturing, sales and distribution for lubricants products in Africa. The investment is a joint venture investment and measured using the equity method. SVL is jointly owned by Vivo Energy Investments B.V. (50%) and Shell Overseas Investments B.V. (50%).

The table below provides summarised financial information for the carrying amount of the investment in SVL.

US$ million

2020

2019

At 1 January

 164

 163

Share of profit

 8

 12

Dividend received

(15)

(11)

Foreign exchange differences

(1)

-

At 31 December

 156

 164

 

 

The total assets of SVL as per 31 December 2020 are $220m (2019: $241m), of which $139m (2019: $156m) relate to current (including cash and cash equivalents of $30m (2019: $28m)) and $81m (2019: $85m) to non-current assets. The current liabilities are $73m (2019: $89m) (including borrowings of $15m (2019: $21m)) and non-current liabilities of $11m (2019: $6m). The revenue for the year ending 31 December 2020 was $255m (2019: $281m), and profit after income tax was $18m (2019: $21m). Other comprehensive income, net of tax, for the year amounted to $1m (2019: loss of $1m). The 2020 profit includes amortisation and depreciation of $9m (2019: $8m), net finance expense of $1m (2019: $1m) and income tax expense of $13m (2019: $9m).

The carrying value of SVL includes a notional goodwill of $96m calculated as the difference between the cost of the investment and the investor's share of the fair values of the investee's identifiable assets and liabilities acquired. Since the notional goodwill is not shown as a separate asset, it is not required to be separately tested for impairment, nor does it trigger an annual impairment test.

There are no contingent liabilities relating to the Group's investments in joint ventures and associates.

14. Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income

The Group has classified equity investments as financial instruments at FVTOCI (without recycling). These investments are measured using inputs for the asset or liability that are in absence of observable market data, based on net asset value of the related investments (level 3 in the IFRS 13 'Fair Value Measurement' hierarchy).

The value is based on the net asset value of the related investments and therefore no sensitivity analysis is presented.

US$ million

2020

2019

At 1 January

 9

 8

Fair value adjustment

 2

 1

Foreign exchange differences

 1

-

At 31 December

 12

 9

Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income relate to the Group's investment in Société de Gestion des Stocks Pétroliers de Côte d'Ivoire S.A. (GESTOCI) in which it holds an interest of circa 17%. The Group does not have significant influence or joint control in the investee. The investment is not held for trading and not a contingent consideration recognised by an acquirer in a business combination, therefore, at initial recognition the Group has elected to account for the investment at fair value through other comprehensive income.

No dividends were received from GESTOCI in 2020 and 2019. Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income are categorised as level 3 of the fair value hierarchy and are the only level 3 financial assets within the Group. There were no changes made during the year to valuation methods or the processes to determine classification and no transfers were made between the levels in the fair value hierarchy.

15. OTHER FINANCIAL ASSETS AND LIABILITIES

Other financial assets and liabilities are derivative instruments comprising forward foreign exchange contracts and cross-currency swaps with a fair value of $(9)m (2019: $(3)m). In 2020 the Group settled an interest rate swap on long-term borrowings and entered into a fixed-fixed cross-currency swap. Other financial assets and liabilities are categorised as level 2 of the fair value hierarchy. There have been no transfers between any levels during the year.

The specific valuation techniques used to value financial instruments that are carried at fair value using level 2 techniques are:

The fair value of cross-currency swaps is calculated as the present value of the estimated future cash flows based on current market data provided by third party banks; and

The fair value of forward foreign exchange contracts is calculated by comparison with current forward prices of contracts for comparable remaining terms.

 

 

16. Other assets

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Prepayments

86

99

Amounts due from dealers and joint ventures

60

33

VAT and duties receivable

59

61

Other government benefits receivable

45

92

Deposits

13

13

Indemnification asset on legal and tax claims

12

13

Employee loans

7

7

Other1

35

49

 

317

367

Current

200

257

Non-current

117

110

 

317

367

1  The amount mainly comprises of other non-current receivables.

Other government benefits receivable

US$ million

Credit rating

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Senegal

Ba3

24

38

Morocco

BB+

10

22

Guinea

None available

3

7

Botswana

BBB+

1

3

Madagascar

None available

-

10

Other

 

7

12

 

 

45

92

The Group is exposed to credit risk in relation to other government benefits receivables. Based on management's review on the recoverability of these receivables it believes the credit risk in relation to these balances is relatively low. Other government benefits receivable are partially provided for and presented net of provisions for impairment of $24m (2019: $18m). For the year $103m (2019: $133m) of other government benefits were recognised in cost of sales for compensation of costs incurred.

17. Inventories

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Fuel

401

436

Lubricants

77

79

Other

2

2

 

480

517

Cost of sales as disclosed on the face of the consolidated statements of comprehensive income include the total expense for inventory during the year for $5,976m (2019: $7,379m). The carrying value of inventory represents the net realisable value. Provisions for write-downs of inventories to the net realisable value amounted to $8m as per 31 December 2020 (2019: $7m).

 

 

18. Trade receivables

Trade receivables were as follows, as at:

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Trade receivables

 410

506

Less: loss allowance of trade receivables

(66)

(55)

Trade receivables - net

344

451

The fair values of trade receivables approximate their carrying value as they are deemed short-term in their nature and recoverable within 12 months.

Movements in the loss allowance of trade receivables are as follows:

US$ million

2020

2019

At 1 January

55

41

Additions1

14

22

Reversals

(6)

(4)

Utilisation

(1)

(2)

Foreign exchange differences

4

(2)

At 31 December

66

55

1  Additions in 2019 include an amount of $10m related to acquired assets of VEOHL.

19. Cash and cash equivalents

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Cash

 479

 348

Cash equivalents:

 

 

Short-term placements

 36

 65

Money market funds and other cash equivalents

-

 104

 

 515

 517

20. Share capital and reserves

Share capital consists of 1,266,941,899 ordinary shares at the nominal value of $0.50 each. At 31 December 2020, 1,266,808,716 shares have been issued and fully paid and entitle the holder to participate in dividends and 133,183 treasury shares. The shares held by the trust are not considered as treasury shares for the purposes of Listing Rules disclosure. On a show of hands, every holder of ordinary shares present at a meeting in person or by proxy is entitled to one vote, and upon a poll each share is entitled to one vote. Shareholders will, under general law, be entitled to participate in any surplus assets in a winding up of the Company in proportion to their shareholding.

Other reserves are disclosed in the consolidated statements of changes in equity.

 

2020

2019

Ordinary shares

Number
of shares

US$ million

Number
of shares

US$ million

At 1 January

 1,266,073,050

 633

 1,201,798,866

 601

Capital contribution/shares issued

-

-

 63,203,653

 31

Share issuance related to share awards/Directors' subscriptions

 868,849

-

 1,070,531

 1

At 31 December

 1,266,941,899

 633

 1,266,073,050

 633

      
 

 

21. Earnings per share

Basic and diluted EPS were computed as follows:

US$ million, unless otherwise indicated

2020

2019

Basic earnings per share

 

 

Net income

 90

 150

Attributable to owners

 80

 136

Weighted average number of ordinary shares (million)

 1,266

 1,255

Basic earnings per share (US$)

 0.06

 0.11

 

US$ million, unless otherwise indicated

2020

2019

Diluted earnings per share

 

 

Earnings attributable to owners

 80

136

Diluted number of shares (million)

 1,266

1,255

Diluted earnings per share (US$)

 0.06

 0.11

 

US$

2020

2019

Adjusted diluted earnings per share

 

 

Diluted earnings per share

 0.06

 0.11

Impact of special items

 -

 0.01

Adjusted diluted earnings per share

 0.06

 0.12

 

22. Dividends

Given the impact of COVID-19 on the business in the first half of 2020, the Board withdrew its recommendation to pay a final dividend for 2019 and did not declare an interim dividend for the first half of 2020 in July. On 18 December 2020 the Company paid an interim dividend of 2.65 cents per share, which is the amount that would have been paid to shareholders had the final dividend of the year ended 31 December 2019 been paid rather than withdrawn. This interim dividend was paid out of distributable reserves and is reflected in the statement of changes in equity.

The Board has recommended a final dividend of circa 3.8 cents per share, amounting to $48m, which is in respect of the full twelve months of 2020. Payment of this dividend is expected on 25 June 2021 to shareholders of record at close of business on 28 May 2021. The dividend will be paid out of distributable reserves as at 31 December 2020 and is not recognised in the statement of changes in equity.

US$ million

2020

2019

Interim dividend

 34

14

Final dividend

48

-

Total

82

 14

 

 

23. Borrowings

US$ million

Drawn on

Interest rate

Maturity

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Notes1

24/09/2020

5.125%

24/09/2027

349

-

VEI BV Term Loan2

09/06/2017

 Libor + 2.50%/3.00%

09/06/2022

-

 308

VEI BV Revolving Credit Facility3

27/02/2019

 Euribor + 1.50%/1.85%

 

 59

 63

Bank borrowings

 

 

 

 274

 229

 

 

 

 

 682

 600

Current

 

 

 

 270

 306

Non-current

 

 

 

 412

 294

 

 

 

 

 682

 600

1  The amounts are net of financing costs. Notes amount is $350m; financing costs are $1m.

2  The amounts are net of financing costs. Loan amount was $310m in 2019; financing costs were $2m in 2019.

3  The amount includes financing costs of circa $1m (2019: $1m).

Current borrowings consist of bank borrowings which carry interest rates between 1.5% and 18% per annum. Included in bank borrowings is an amount of $50m (2019: $17m) relating to trade financing.

The fair value of the notes is approximately $374m based on quoted market prices at the end of the reporting period. The carrying amounts of other Group's non-current and current borrowings approximate the fair value.

The VEI BV Term Loan facility was entered into on 9 June 2017. Interest was paid quarterly at a rate of Libor +2.5% per annum. The incremental facility was drawn down on 18 December 2017 and carried an interest of Libor +2.5% for the amortised portion and Libor +3.0% for the bullet portion. The facility was refinanced in September 2020 when the Group issued $350m notes with a coupon rate of 5.125% paid semi-annually and maturing in 7 years. The notes are fully redeemed at maturity.

In May 2018, the Company established a multi-currency revolving credit facility of $300m. The multi-currency revolving credit facility was initially utilised, in February 2019, with a drawdown of $64m, to fund the acquisition of VEOHL. Majority of the RCF facility matures in May 2023.

Besides the RCF, the Group has various unsecured short-term bank facilities extended to operating entities for working capital purposes. The undrawn, unsecured short-term bank facilities of $1,323m include a large number of uncommitted facilities held with a number of different banks. Most of these facilities are subject to an annual renewal process.

The tables below provide an analysis of cash and non-cash movements in borrowings for the period:

US$ million

 

 

2020

 

Long-term debt

Bank borrowings

Total

1 January

371

229

600

Proceeds from long-term debt1

 517

-

 517

Repayment of long-term debt2

 (492)

-

 (492)

Proceeds/repayment of bank borrowings

-

 26

 26

Foreign exchange movements

 7

 8

 15

Other3

 5

 11

 16

31 December

 408

 274

 682

1  Mainly represents the issuance of fully redeemable notes to the amount of $350m on 24 September 2020 and RCF drawdowns.

2  Includes repayments of the Term Loan and RCF.

3  Other includes financing costs and non-cash items.

 

 

 

 

US$ million

 

 

2019

 

Long-term debt

Bank borrowings

Total

1 January

392

208

600

Proceeds from long-term debt

 62

-

 62

Repayment of long-term debt

 (82)

-

 (82)

Proceeds/repayment of bank borrowings

-

1

 1

Borrowings acquired in acquisition of business1

-

 27

 27

Foreign exchange movements

(3)

(7)

(10)

Other2

2

-

2

31 December

371

229

600

1  Represents the borrowings acquired through the acquisition of VEOHL as at 1 March 2019.

2  Other changes include financing costs.

Key covenants:

The key covenants below relate to the VEI BV Revolving Credit Facility:

Within 150 calendar days after the Group's year-end its audited annual consolidated financial statements, unaudited annual non-consolidated financial statements and the unaudited annual Group accounts of each operating unit must be provided to the lender. Within 90 days after each half of each financial year, the unaudited non-consolidated financial statements, unaudited consolidated financial statements and unaudited Group accounts for each operating unit for the financial half-year must be provided to the lender.

The financial covenants are minimum interest cover of 4x and maximum debt cover of 3x. With each set of financial statements, a financial covenants compliance certificate has to be provided indicating the debt and interest cover. The loan carries some customary negative pledges such as on asset sale, securities over assets, mergers and guarantees subject in each case to some exemptions and permitted baskets. It also has a change of control clause triggering repayment if an entity, other than permitted ones, takes control of the Company.

The below key covenants relate to the VEI BV Notes:

The financial covenants are a minimum fixed charged cover of 2x. The Notes carry customary restrictive covenants such as on asset sale, securities over assets, mergers and guarantees subject in each case to some exemptions and permitted baskets, and a maintenance of listing covenant. It also has a change of control clause giving each noteholder a put right if an entity, other than permitted ones, takes control of the Company.

No key covenants were breached in the last applicable period.

 

 

24. Provisions

Provisions include the following:

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Provisions

 85

 85

Retirement benefit obligations (note 25)

 35

 31

 

 120

 116

Current

 16

 14

Non-current

 104

 102

 

 120

 116

 

 

2020

US$ million

Compulsory stock obligation

Legal

provision

Other

Total

At 1 January

21

12

52

85

Additions

-

 2

 11

 13

Utilisation

-

 (1)

 (5)

 (6)

Releases

 (3)

 (2)

 (2)

 (7)

Foreign exchange differences

 2

 (1)

 (1)

-

At 31 December

 20

 10

 55

 85

Current

-

 10

 6

 16

Non-current

 20

-

 49

 69

 

 20

 10

 55

 85

Compulsory stock obligation provision

The oil market regulator in Morocco introduced an industry mechanism to enable oil market operators to maintain the necessary compulsory stock volume requirement. This resulted in an oil fund liability, which is an amount payable to the Moroccan oil fund regulator in relation to the compulsory stock reserve requirement introduced in 1994.

Legal provision

This amount represents a provision of certain legal claims brought against the Group. The timing of any payout is uncertain as these claims are being disputed by the Group. The Group believes that the outcome of these claims will not give rise to a significant loss beyond the amounts provided against as at 31 December 2020.

Other

Other provisions include a number of costs to be paid out by the Group that have uncertainty in timing of cash values and total monetary value. Other provisions relate mainly to employee related provisions of $10m (2019: $8m) and provisions for uncertain tax positions for non-income taxes, interest and penalties of $31m (2019: $29m). Refer to note 4.2 for further details regarding uncertain tax positions.

 

 

25. Retirement benefits

The Group operates defined benefit plans in multiple African countries, which include Cape Verde, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Mauritius, Morocco, Namibia, Reunion, Rwanda, Senegal and Tunisia. The plans operated in Cape Verde, Mauritius, Morocco, Tunisia and Ghana combined present approximately 80% of the total liability for the Company. The valuations are carried out in line with the regulatory requirements in each country considering the requirements under IAS 19, 'Employee Benefits'. The plans offered in these countries differ in nature and consist of medical plans, pension plans, retirement indemnities, jubilees and long service award plans. These plan benefits are linked to final salary and benefit payments are met as they fall due. The two exceptions to this are Gabon and Mauritius, which both operate a funded plan. The plan in Gabon has a funding level of approximately 90% and Mauritius approximately 68%. In Gabon plan assets are held in the form of insurance contracts. For Mauritius, plan assets are held in vehicles with standard investment risk, following a balanced investment strategy, split between equities, government bonds and asset-backed securities. The plan in Mauritius has been closed to future accrual; from 31 December 2014 onwards. However, the link to final salaries is being maintained for in-service employees.

US$ million

2020

2019

Current service cost

 1

 1

Accretion expense

 2

2

 

3

3

 

US$ million

2020

2019

Defined benefit plans

 3

3

Defined contribution plans

 9

 6

Total retirement benefit costs

 12

 9

 

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Consolidated statements of financial position obligations for:

 

 

Pension benefits

 31

 26

Other post-employment benefits

 4

 5

Total liability

 35

 31

 

The amounts recognised in the consolidated statements of financial position are determined as follows:

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Present value of funded obligations

 (17)

 (13)

Fair value of plan assets

 12

 11

Funded status of funded benefit obligations (net liability)

 (5)

 (2)

Present value of unfunded obligation

 (26)

 (24)

Unfunded status end of year (net liability)

 (31)

 (26)

Net defined benefit obligation

 (31)

 (26)

 

 

 

The movements in the defined benefit obligation for funded and unfunded post-employment defined benefits over the year are as follows:

 

2020

2019

US$ million

Pension benefits

Other

Total

Pension benefits

Other

Total

At 1 January

37

5

42

 37

 4

 41

Current service costs

 1

-

 1

 1

-

 1

Benefits paid

 (4)

-

 (4)

 (3)

-

 (3)

Interest costs

 2

-

 2

 2

-

2

(Gains)/losses from change in financial assumptions

 4

-

 4

 1

-

 1

(Gains)/losses from change in demographic assumptions

 1

-

 1

-

-

-

Actuarial (gains)/losses

 1

 (1)

-

-

-

-

Retirement benefit obligations recognised on acquisition

-

-

-

-

 2

2

Foreign exchange differences

 1

-

 1

 (1)

 (1)

 (2)

At 31 December

 43

 4

 47

 37

 5

 42

The movements in the fair value of plan assets over the year are as follows:

 

2020

2019

US$ million

Pension benefits

Total

Pension benefits

Total

At 1 January

11

11

 12

 12

Interest income

-

-

 1

 1

Employer contributions

 3

 3

 2

 2

Benefits paid

 (2)

 (2)

 (3)

 (3)

Foreign exchange differences

-

-

 (1)

 (1)

At 31 December

 12

 12

 11

 11

The plan assets shown above are invested in equities $6m (2019: $5m) government bonds $4m (2019: $3m), corporate bonds $2m (2019: $3m), insurance contracts $0.4m (2019: Nil) and cash and cash equivalents $0.03m (2019: $0.1m).

The sensitivity of the defined benefit obligation to changes in weighted principal assumptions is:

 

Assumptions used

 

Effect of using alternative assumptions

 

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

 

Range of assumptions

Increase/(decrease)

Rate of increase in pensionable remuneration

3.71%

4.34%

 

0.50% - (0.50%)

2.72% - (2.55%)

Rate of increase in pensions in payment

2.41%

2.26%

 

0.50% - (0.50%)

1.20% - (1.11%)

Rate of increase in healthcare costs

16.20%

9.72%

 

0.50% - (0.50%)

4.07% - (3.77%)

Discount rate for pension plans

4.38%

5.84%

 

0.50% - (0.50%)

(5.56)% - 5.99%

Discount rate for healthcare plans

21.13%

13.81%

 

0.50% - (0.50%)

(5.01)% - 5.50%

Expected age at death for persons aged 60:

 

 

 

 

 

Men

79.86

 79.74

 

 

 

Women

83.61

 83.65

 

 

 

 

 

 

The principal actuarial assumptions were as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020

 

Tunisia

Senegal

Cape Verde

Mauritius

Morocco

Côte d'Ivoire

Guinea

Namibia

Ghana

Gabon

Reunion

Rwanda

Discount rate

9.75%

8.00%

4.00%

2.75%

2.50%

6.00%

13.50%

15.60%

23.00%

5.50%

1.00%

11.25%

Inflation rate

4.50%

1.75%

2.00%

0.50%

2.00%

n/a

n/a

10.10%

12.00%

2.75%

1.80%

4.75%

Future salary increases

6.00%

3.00%

2.00%

0.50%

6.00%

3.00%

8.00%

n/a

n/a

3.00%

2.58%

7.50%

Future pension increases

n/a

n/a

1.00%

3.00%

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2019

 

Tunisia

Senegal

Cape Verde

Mauritius

Morocco

Côte d'Ivoire

Guinea

Namibia

Ghana

Discount rate

9.25%

10.00%

4.00%

5.25%

3.25%

6.00%

13.50%

11.30%

15.00%

Inflation rate

4.50%

1.50%

2.00%

2.80%

n/a

n/a

n/a

7.40%

10.00%

Future salary increases

6.00%

3.00%

2.00%

2.80%

6.00%

3.00%

10.00%

n/a

n/a

Future pension increases

n/a

n/a

1.00%

3.00%

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Assumptions regarding future mortality experience are set based on actuarial advice in accordance with published statistics and experience in each territory.

The weighted average duration of the defined benefit obligation is 11.98 years.

Expected contributions to post-employment benefit plans for the year ending 31 December 2021 are $2m.

 

26. Other liabilities

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Oil fund liabilities

110

96

Other tax payable1

75

91

Deposits owed to customers

72

63

Employee liabilities²

44

51

Deferred income

14

11

Other

21

26

 

336

338

Current

171

178

Non-current

165

160

 

336

338

1  Other tax payable mainly relates to VAT, withholding taxes and employee taxes.

2  Employee liabilities mainly relate to employee bonuses.

 

 

 

27. Leases

The Group has leases for motor vehicles, corporate offices, land, buildings and equipment. Leases have remaining lease terms of one year to 99 years, some of which may include options to extend the leases for at least five years and some of which may include options to terminate the leases within one year.

The consolidated statement of financial position shows the following amounts relating to leases:

US$ million

Land and buildings

Motor vehicles

Total

Right-of-use assets, 1 January 2019

130

18

148

Depreciation of right-of-use assets

(17)

(4)

(21)

Leases effective in 2019

 47

2

49

Right-of-use assets, 31 December 2019

160

16

176

Depreciation of right-of-use assets

(22)

(3)

(25)

Leases effective in 2020

 43

7

50

Right-of-use assets, 31 December 2020

181

20

 201

 

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Current lease liabilities

 24

 21

Non-current lease liabilities

 119

 104

 

 143

 125

The consolidated statement of comprehensive income shows the following amounts relating to leases:

US$ million

2020

2019

Interest expense (included in finance cost)

(12)

(11)

Depreciation of right-of-use assets

(25)

(21)

Expenses relating to short-term leases, low-value leases and variable leases not included in the lease liabilities

(7)

(6)

Depreciation charge of $25m (2019: $21m) is included in: cost of sales for $4m (2019: $3m), in selling and marketing costs for $18m (2019: $16m) and in general and administrative costs $3m (2019: $2m).

The consolidated statement of cash flows shows the following amounts relating to leases:

US$ million

2020

2019

Cash flows from financing activities

 

 

Principal elements of lease payments

(31)

(27)

Interest paid

(10)

(9)

 

(41)

(36)

Other information related to leases was as follows:

 

2020

2019

Weighted average remaining lease term (years)

 10

11

Weighted average discount rate

11%

12%

The Group recognised rental income of $34m (2019: $43m) as revenue in the statement of comprehensive income.

 

 

28. NET CHANGE IN OPERATING ASSETS and LIABILITIES and OTHER ADJUSTMENTS

US$ million

2020

2019

Trade payables

 (203)

105

Trade receivables

 114

50

Inventories

 40

(25)

Other liabilities

 (17)

6

Other assets

 39

6

Provisions

 1

(5)

Other

 74

39

 

 48

176

29. Commitments and contingencies

Commitments

The Group also has purchase obligations, under various agreements, made in the normal course of business. The purchase obligations are as follows, as at:

US$ million

31 December 2020

31 December 2019

Purchase obligations

22

 13

Contingent liabilities and legal proceedings

The Group may from time to time be involved in a number of legal proceedings. The Directors prepare a best estimate of its contingent liabilities that should be recognised or disclosed in respect of legal claims in the course of ordinary business. Furthermore, in many markets there is a high degree of complexity involved in the local tax and other regulatory regimes. The Group is required to exercise judgement in the assessment of any potential exposures in these areas.

As previously announced, the Group's subsidiary in Morocco received a report in January 2020 from the investigators in charge of the Conseil de la Concurrence's ('CdC') ongoing review of the competitive dynamics of the Moroccan fuel retailing industry. Vivo Energy Morocco has provided submissions to the CdC at their request. The report and these submissions were discussed at a private hearing of the CdC held on 21 and 22 July 2020 in Morocco. After the hearing, the Royal Cabinet intervened and formed an independent commission to review the CdC investigation. This followed the receipt of allegations regarding the CdC process and conduct. It is understood that the CdC was recommending a fine of 8% of annual Moroccan turnover against the industry before the formation of the independent commission. We await the outcome of that investigation. Management believes that Vivo Energy Morocco has at all times conducted its operations in accordance with applicable competition laws, rules and regulations.

In the ordinary course of business, the Group is subject to a number of contingencies arising from litigation and claims brought by governmental, including tax authorities, and private parties. The operations and earnings of the Group continues, from time to time, to be affected to varying degrees by political, legislative, fiscal and regulatory developments, including those relating to the protection of the environment and indigenous groups in the countries in which they operate. The industries in which the Group is engaged are also subject to physical risks of various types. There remains a high degree of uncertainty around these contingencies, as well as their potential effect on future operations, earnings, cash flows and the Group's financial condition.

The Group does not believe and is not currently aware of any other litigations, claims, legal proceedings or other contingent liabilities that should be disclosed.

30. SHARE-BASED PAYMENTS

The Group operates share-based payment plans for certain Executive Directors, Senior Managers and other senior employees.

Management Equity Plan

In 2013, Vivo Energy Holding B.V. awarded to eligible employees either (1) Management equity plan (MEP) phantom options which entitled option holders to a cash payment based on the value of Vivo Energy Holding shares upon exercise of their MEP phantom options or (2) the opportunity to acquire restricted shares in combination with a linked option right to acquire ordinary shares in Vivo Energy.

Under the terms of the phantom options, all outstanding phantom options would become fully exercisable upon the share admission in May 2018. The option holders subsequently agreed to amend the terms of their outstanding phantom options such that 30% of the outstanding phantom options were deemed to be exercised at share admission and 70% became exercisable on the first anniversary of the share admission being 4 May 2019, for a period of 24 months. Under the amended terms, the option holders' entitlement to the cash payment is based on the market value of the shares at the time of exercise net of a nominal exercise price per share.

The MEP related liability as at 31 December 2020 amounted to $4m (2019: $15m).

IPO Share Award Plan

In May 2018, Vivo Energy plc granted certain Executive Directors and Senior Managers one-off share awards ('IPO Share Awards') under the 2018 IPO Share Award Plan. The IPO Share Awards vest, subject to continued service and performance conditions relating to consolidated gross cash profit growth and adjusted net income growth being met, in three equal tranches on the first, second and third anniversary of admission.

Long-Term Incentive Plan

Vivo Energy plc adopted the Vivo Energy 2018 Long-Term Incentive Plan (the 'LTIP 2018') in May 2018, the Vivo Energy 2019 Long-Term Incentive Plan (the 'LTIP 2019') in March 2019 and the Vivo Energy 2020 Long-Term Incentive Plan (the 'LTIP 2020') in March 2020. The LTIP 2018, LTIP 2019 and LTIP 2020 provide for grants of awards over the shares of the Company in the form of share awards subject to continued employment and the performance conditions relating to earnings per share, return on average capital employed and total shareholder returns over a threeyear period. Executive Directors and Senior Management of the Group are eligible for grants under the LTIP 2018, LTIP 2019 and LTIP 2020.

The table below shows the share-based payment expense/(income) recognised in the statements of comprehensive income:

US$ million

2020

2019

Cash-settled share-based payments

 

 

Management Equity Plan

 (3)

 (2)

Equity-settled share-based payments

 

 

IPO Share Award Plan

 1

-

Long-Term Incentive Plans 2018, 2019 & 2020

 2

1

 

-

 (1)

 

Movements in the number of shares and share options outstanding, and their related weighted average exercise prices, are as follows:

 

 

LTIP

IPO

 

MEP

In million

LTIP 2018

LTIP 2019

LTIP 2020

IPO
Share Awards

Average exercise price per phantom option

US$

Phantom

Options

Outstanding at 1 January 2020

 3

 5

-

 2

 0.05

7

Granted/Lapsed

-

 (1)

5

-

-

-

Vested/Exercised

-

-

-

 (1)

-

(4)

Outstanding at 31 December 2020

 3

 4

 5

 1

 0.05

3

Exercisable at 31 December 2020

-

-

-

-

 n/a

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding at 1 January 2019

4

-

-

 4

 0.05

11

Granted/Lapsed

 (1)

 5

-

 (1)

-

-

Vested/Exercised

-

-

-

(1)

-

(4)

Outstanding at 31 December 2019

 3

 5

-

 2

 0.05

7

Exercisable at 31 December 2019

-

-

-

-

n/a

7

 

 

 

The inputs of the valuation model for options granted during the year are as follows:

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

US$

LTIP 2018

LTIP 2019

LTIP 2020

IPO Share

Awards

MEP phantom options

LTIP 2018

LTIP
2019

IPO Share

Awards

MEP phantom options

Share price at grant date

 2.24

 1.65

1.22

2.33

-

 2.24

 1.65

2.33

-

Share price at valuation date

-

-

-

-

 1.16

-

-

-

 1.67

Option exercise price

-

-

-

-

0.05

-

-

-

0.05

Expected dividends as a dividend yield (%)

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

           

31. Related parties

Sales and purchases

US$ million

Joint ventures and associates

Shareholders

Total

2020

 

 

 

Sales of products and services and other income

 29

 37

 66

Purchase of products and services and other expenses

 269

 837

 1,106

 

 

 

 

2019

 

 

 

Sales of products and services and other income

 15

 130

 145

Purchase of products and services and other expenses

284

1,312

1,596

The following table presents the Company's outstanding balances with related parties:

US$ million

Joint ventures and associates

Shareholders

Total

31 December 2020

 

 

 

Receivables from related parties

 53

 2

 55

Payables to related parties

(51)

(160)

(211)

 

2

(158)

(156)

 

 

 

 

31 December 2019

 

 

 

Receivables from related parties

 11

 8

 19

Payables to related parties

(58)

(339)

(397)

 

(47)

(331)

(378)

The receivables from related parties arise from sale transactions and loans to joint ventures. Receivables are due two months after the date of sales, are unsecured in nature and bear no interest.  Loans to joint ventures are interest bearing and secured by the entire issued share capital of the joint venture. No provisions are held against receivables from related parties.

The payables to related parties arise mainly from purchase transactions at arm's length, including a supplier agreement with Vitol Supply, and are typically due two months after the date of purchase. These payables bear no interest.

32. EVENTS AFTER BALANCE SHEET PERIOD

There have been no material subsequent events after the reporting period, up to and including the date that the financial statements were authorised for issue, that would have required disclosure or adjustment of the Consolidated financial statements.

 

 

 

 

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